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      Novel Candidates for Vaccine Development Against Mycoplasma Capricolum Subspecies Capripneumoniae (Mccp)—Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

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          Abstract

          Exploration of novel candidates for vaccine development against Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp), the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), has recently gained immense importance due to both the increased number of outbreaks and the alarming risk of transboundary spread of disease. Treatment by antibiotics as the only therapeutic strategy is not a viable option due to pathogen persistence, economic issues, and concerns of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, prophylactics or vaccines are becoming important under the current scenario. For quite some time inactivated, killed, or attenuated vaccines proved to be beneficial and provided good immunity up to a year. However, their adverse effects and requirement for larger doses led to the need for production of large quantities of Mccp. This is challenging because the required culture medium is costly and Mycoplasma growth is fastidious and slow. Furthermore, quality control is always an issue with such vaccines. Currently, novel candidate antigens including capsular polysaccharides (CPS), proteins, enzymes, and genes are being evaluated for potential use as vaccines. These have shown potential immunogenicity with promising results in eliciting protective immune responses. Being easy to produce, specific, effective and free from side effects, these novel vaccine candidates can revolutionize vaccination against CCPP. Use of novel proteomic approaches, including sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectroscopy, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC), bioinformatics, computerized simulation and genomic approaches, including multilocus sequence analysis, next-generation sequencing, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), gene expression, and recombinant expression, will further enable recognition of ideal antigenic proteins and virulence genes with vaccination potential.

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          Most cited references 128

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          Thioredoxin reductase.

           D Mustacich,  G Powis (2000)
          The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are a family of selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases with mechanistic and sequence identity, including a conserved -Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- redox catalytic site, to glutathione reductases. TrxRs catalyse the NADPH-dependent reduction of the redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), as well as of other endogenous and exogenous compounds. The broad substrate specificity of mammalian TrxRs is due to a second redox-active site, a C-terminal -Cys-SeCys- (where SeCys is selenocysteine), that is not found in glutathione reductase or Escherichia coli TrxR. There are currently two confirmed forms of mammalian TrxRs, TrxR1 and TrxR2, and it is possible that other forms will be identified. The availability of Se is a key factor determining TrxR activity both in cell culture and in vivo, and the mechanism(s) for the incorporation of Se into TrxRs, as well as the regulation of TrxR activity, have only recently begun to be investigated. The importance of Trx to many aspects of cell function make it likely that TrxRs also play a role in protection against oxidant injury, cell growth and transformation, and the recycling of ascorbate from its oxidized form. Since TrxRs are able to reduce a number of substrates other than Trx, it is likely that additional biological effects will be discovered for TrxR. Furthermore, inhibiting TrxR with drugs may lead to new treatments for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS and autoimmune diseases.
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            Use of defined TLR ligands as adjuvants within human vaccines.

            Our improved understanding of how innate immune responses can be initiated and how they can shape adaptive B- and T-cell responses is having a significant impact on vaccine development by directing the development of defined adjuvants. Experience with first generation vaccines, as well as rapid advances in developing defined vaccines containing Toll-like receptor ligands (TLRLs), indicate that an expanded number of safe and effective vaccines containing such molecules will be available in the future. In this review, we outline current knowledge regarding TLRs, detailing the different cell types that express TLRs, the various signaling pathways TLRs utilize, and the currently known TLRLs. We then discuss the current status of TLRLs within vaccine development programs, including the importance of appropriate formulation, and how recent developments can be used to better define the mechanisms of action of vaccines. Finally, we introduce the possibility of using TLRLs, either in combination or with non-TLRLs, to synergistically potentiate vaccine-induced responses to provide not only prophylactic, but therapeutic protection against infectious diseases and cancer. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
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              Vaccine adjuvants as potential cancer immunotherapeutics

              New adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vaccines (Basel)
                Vaccines (Basel)
                vaccines
                Vaccines
                MDPI
                2076-393X
                23 July 2019
                September 2019
                : 7
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Mycoplasma Laboratory, Division of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India
                [2 ]Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Madras Veterinary College, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Vepery 600007, India
                [3 ]Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
                [4 ]Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India
                [5 ]ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Sirsa Road, Hisar 125001, India
                [6 ]Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
                [7 ]Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India
                Author notes
                Article
                vaccines-07-00071
                10.3390/vaccines7030071
                6789616
                31340571
                6d5bcc68-d77f-42df-a5d0-1afa1a2b6037
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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