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      Structural characterization and immunomodulatory effect of a polysaccharide HCP-2 from Houttuynia cordata


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          • A pure pectic polysaccharide (named HCP-2) was obtained from the water extract of Houttuynia cordata.

          • HCP-2 was chemically characterized using acid hydrolysis, PMP derivation, FTIR and NMR.

          • HCP-2 exhibited immunomodulatory effects in vitro.


          Immunomodulation of natural polysaccharides has been the hot topic of research in recent years. In order to explore the immunomodulatory effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., the water extract was studied and a polysaccharide HCP-2 with molecular weight of 60,000 Da was isolated by chromatography using DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 HR columns. The structure characterization of HCP-2 was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), acidic hydrolysis, PMP derivation, HPLC analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR). HCP-2 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide with a linear chain of 1,4-linked α- d-galacturonic acid residues in which part of the 6-carboxyl groups were methyl esterified and part of 2-hydroxyl groups were acetylated. The bioactivity assays showed that HCP-2 could increase the secretions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1β (MIP-1β), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which play critical roles in the innate immune system and shape the adaptive immunity. Our results implied that HCP-2 could be an immune enhancer.

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          Most cited references21

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          Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans.

          The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them. Although beta-glucans are known to bind to receptors, such as complement receptor 3 (ref. 1), there is evidence that another beta-glucan receptor is present on macrophages. Here we identify this unknown receptor as dectin-1 (ref. 2), a finding that provides new insights into the innate immune recognition of beta-glucans.
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            A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb.

            The immunopotentiating effect of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a medicinal herb, has been associated with its polysaccharide fractions (Astragalus polysaccharides, APS). We herein demonstrate that APS activates mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in terms of proliferation or cytokine production. Fluorescence-labeled APS (fl-APS) was able to selectively stain murine B cells, macrophages and a also human tumor cell line, THP-1, as determined in flow cytometric analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The specific binding of APS to B cells and macrophages was competitively inhibited by bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Rabbit-anti-mouse immunoglobulin (Ig) antibody was able to inhibit APS-induced proliferation of, and APS binding to, mouse B cells. Additionally, APS effectively stimulated the proliferation of splenic B cells from C3H/HeJ mice that have a mutated TLR4 molecule incapable of signal transduction. These results indicate that APS activates B cells via membrane Ig in a TLR4-independent manner. Interestingly, macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice were unable to respond to APS stimulation, suggesting a positive involvement of the TLR4 molecule in APS-mediated macrophage activation. Monoclonal Ab against mouse TLR4 partially inhibited APS binding with macrophages, implying direct interaction between APS and TLR4 on cell surface. These results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from medicinal herbs.
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              The love-hate relationship between bacterial polysaccharides and the host immune system.

              This article explores the fascinating relationship between the mammalian immune system and the bacteria that are present in the mammalian gut. Every human is an ecosystem that hosts 10(13)-10(14) bacteria. We review the evidence that immunomodulatory molecules produced by commensal bacteria in the gut have a beneficial influence on the development of certain immune responses, through eliciting the clonal expansion of CD4(+) T-cell populations. This process seems to contribute to the overall health of the host by offering protection against various diseases and might provide supporting evidence at a molecular level for the 'hygiene hypothesis' of allergic immune disorders.

                Author and article information

                Carbohydr Polym
                Carbohydr Polym
                Carbohydrate Polymers
                Elsevier Ltd.
                21 December 2013
                15 March 2014
                21 December 2013
                : 103
                : 244-249
                [a ]Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
                [b ]State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
                [c ]School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
                [d ]State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Institute of Chinese Medicine, E305, Science Centre East Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Tel.: +852 3943 6109; fax: +852 2603 5248. claralau@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk
                Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 30 April 2013
                : 2 December 2013
                : 13 December 2013

                Organic & Biomolecular chemistry
                houttuynia cordata,pectic polysaccharide,hcp-2,structural characterization,immunomodulation


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