6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The polyploidy and its key role in plant breeding

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          This article provides an up-to-date review concerning from basic issues of polyploidy to aspects regarding the relevance and role of both natural and artificial polyploids in plant breeding programs. Polyploidy is a major force in the evolution of both wild and cultivated plants. Polyploid organisms often exhibit increased vigor and, in some cases, outperform their diploid relatives in several aspects. This remarkable superiority of polyploids has been the target of many plant breeders in the last century, who have induced polyploidy and/or used natural polyploids in many ways to obtain increasingly improved plant cultivars. Some of the most important consequences of polyploidy for plant breeding are the increment in plant organs ("gigas" effect), buffering of deleterious mutations, increased heterozygosity, and heterosis (hybrid vigor). Regarding such features as tools, cultivars have been generated with higher yield levels, improving the product quality and increasing the tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In some cases, when the crossing between two species is not possible because of differences in ploidy level, polyploids can be used as a bridge for gene transferring between them. In addition, polyploidy often results in reduced fertility due to meiotic errors, allowing the production of seedless varieties. On the other hand, the genome doubling in a newly formed sterile hybrid allows the restoration of its fertility. Based on these aspects, the present review initially concerns the origin, frequency and classification of the polyploids, progressing to show the revolution promoted by the discovery of natural polyploids and polyploidization induction in the breeding program status of distinct crops.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 75

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants.

          Genome doubling (polyploidy) has been and continues to be a pervasive force in plant evolution. Modern plant genomes harbor evidence of multiple rounds of past polyploidization events, often followed by massive silencing and elimination of duplicated genes. Recent studies have refined our inferences of the number and timing of polyploidy events and the impact of these events on genome structure. Many polyploids experience extensive and rapid genomic alterations, some arising with the onset of polyploidy. Survivorship of duplicated genes are differential across gene classes, with some duplicate genes more prone to retention than others. Recent theory is now supported by evidence showing that genes that are retained in duplicate typically diversify in function or undergo subfunctionalization. Polyploidy has extensive effects on gene expression, with gene silencing accompanying polyploid formation and continuing over evolutionary time.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Understanding mechanisms of novel gene expression in polyploids.

            Polyploidy has long been recognized as a prominent force shaping the evolution of eukaryotes, especially flowering plants. New phenotypes often arise with polyploid formation and can contribute to the success of polyploids in nature or their selection for use in agriculture. Although the causes of novel variation in polyploids are not well understood, they could involve changes in gene expression through increased variation in dosage-regulated gene expression, altered regulatory interactions, and rapid genetic and epigenetic changes. New research approaches are being used to study these mechanisms and the results should provide a more complete understanding of polyploidy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Stomatal size in fossil plants: evidence for polyploidy in majority of angiosperms.

               J Masterson (1994)
              Three published estimates of the frequency of polyploidy in angiosperms (30 to 35 percent, 47 percent, and 70 to 80 percent) were tested by estimating the genome size of extinct woody angiosperms with the use of fossil guard cell size as a proxy for cellular DNA content. The inferred chromosome numbers of these extinct species suggest that seven to nine is the primitive haploid chromosome number of angiosperms and that most angiosperms (approximately 70 percent) have polyploidy in their history.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Planta
                Planta
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0032-0935
                1432-2048
                February 2016
                December 29 2015
                February 2016
                : 243
                : 2
                : 281-296
                Article
                10.1007/s00425-015-2450-x
                26715561
                © 2016

                Comments

                Comment on this article