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      TNFα-mediated Hsd11b1 binding of NF-κB p65 is associated with suppression of 11β-HSD1 in muscle


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          The activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inactive cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC)) (in mice) into the active glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol (corticosterone in mice), can amplify tissue GC exposure. Elevated TNFα is a common feature in a range of inflammatory disorders and is detrimental to muscle function in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have previously demonstrated that 11β-HSD1 activity is increased in the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) by TNFα treatment and suggested that this is an autoregulatory anti-inflammatory mechanism. This upregulation was mediated by the P2 promoter of the Hsd11b1 gene and was dependent on the NF-κB signalling pathway. In this study, we show that in contrast to MSCs, in differentiated C2C12 and primary murine myotubes, TNFα suppresses Hsd11b1 mRNA expression and activity through the utilization of the alternative P1 promoter. As with MSCs, in response to TNFα treatment, NF-κB p65 was translocated to the nucleus. However, ChIP analysis demonstrated that the direct binding was seen at position −218 to −245 bp of the Hsd11b1 gene's P1 promoter but not at the P2 promoter. These studies demonstrate the existence of differential regulation of 11β-HSD1 expression in muscle cells through TNFα/p65 signalling and the P1 promoter, further enhancing our understanding of the role of 11β-HSD1 in the context of inflammatory disease.

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          Most cited references26

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          Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits myogenic differentiation through MyoD protein destabilization.

          Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) has been implicated as a mediator of muscle wasting through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) -dependent inhibition of myogenic differentiation. The aim of the present study was to identify the regulatory molecule(s) of myogenesis targeted by TNFalpha/NF-kappaB signaling. TNFalpha interfered with cell cycle exit and repressed the accumulation of transcripts encoding muscle-specific genes in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts. Overexpression of a p65 (RelA) mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain attenuated the TNFalpha-mediated inhibition of muscle-specific gene transcription. The ability of muscle regulatory factor MyoD to induce muscle-specific transcription in 10T1/2 fibroblasts was also disrupted by wild-type p65, demonstrating that NF-kappaB transcriptional activity interferes with the function of MyoD. Inhibition of muscle-specific gene expression by TNFalpha was restored by overexpression of MyoD, whereas endogenous MyoD protein abundance and stability were reduced by TNFalpha through increased proteolysis of MyoD by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Last, the inhibitory effects of TNFalpha on myogenic differentiation were demonstrated in a mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration, in which TNFalpha caused a delay in myoblast cell cycle exit. These results implicate that TNFalpha inhibits myogenic differentiation through destabilizing MyoD protein in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner, which interferes with skeletal muscle regeneration and may contribute to muscle wasting.
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            Regulation of TNF-α with a focus on rheumatoid arthritis.

            Cytokines and chemokines represent two important groups of proteins that control the human immune system. Dysregulation of the network in which these immunomodulators function can result in uncontrolled inflammation, leading to various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic inflammation and bone erosion. Potential triggers of RA include autoantibodies, cytokines and chemokines. The tight regulation of cytokine and chemokine production, and biological activity is important. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is abundantly present in RA patients' serum and the arthritic synovium. This review, therefore, discusses first the role and regulation of the major proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, in particular the regulation of TNF-α production, post-translational processing and signaling of TNF-α and its receptors. Owing to the important role of TNF-α in RA, the TNF-α-producing cells and the dynamics of its expression, the direct and indirect action of this cytokine and possible biological therapy for RA are described.
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              cisRED: a database system for genome-scale computational discovery of regulatory elements

              We describe cisRED, a database for conserved regulatory elements that are identified and ranked by a genome-scale computational system (). The database and high-throughput predictive pipeline are designed to address diverse target genomes in the context of rapidly evolving data resources and tools. Motifs are predicted in promoter regions using multiple discovery methods applied to sequence sets that include corresponding sequence regions from vertebrates. We estimate motif significance by applying discovery and post-processing methods to randomized sequence sets that are adaptively derived from target sequence sets, retain motifs with p-values below a threshold and identify groups of similar motifs and co-occurring motif patterns. The database offers information on atomic motifs, motif groups and patterns. It is web-accessible, and can be queried directly, downloaded or installed locally.

                Author and article information

                J Endocrinol
                J. Endocrinol
                The Journal of Endocrinology
                BioScientifica (Bristol )
                March 2014
                10 January 2014
                : 220
                : 3
                : 389-396
                [1]School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Birmingham Birmingham, B15 2TTUK
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to G G Lavery; Email: g.g.lavery@ 123456bham.ac.uk
                © 2014 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

                : 8 January 2014
                : 9 January 2014

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                glucocorticoid, inflammation, metabolism, muscle


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