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      Only one patient out of five achieves symmetrical knee function 6 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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          To assess the percentage of patients achieving symmetrical knee function 6 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) and to identify factors affecting its achievement, in a large cohort.


          Data were extracted from our clinic database. Patients who underwent primary ACLR from 2000 to 2015 and were assessed with the isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscles strength tests and single-leg-hop test at the 6-month follow-up were included in the study. Demographic data, information on the graft used, cartilage injuries and concomitant meniscal surgery were reviewed. Patients who reached a limb symmetry index (LSI) of ≥ 90% in all three tests were considered to have achieved symmetrical knee function. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether patient age, gender, time from injury to surgery, pre-injury Tegner activity level, graft type, cartilage injury and the presence of medial meniscus (MM) or lateral meniscus (LM) resection or repair were factors associated with the achievement of symmetrical knee function 6 months after primary ACLR.


          A total of 4093 patients (54.3% males) with a mean age of 28.3 ± 10.7 years were included. Data from all three tests were available for 3541 patients. The proportion of patients that achieved a LSI of ≥ 90% was 35.7%, 47.3% and 67.9% for isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength, hamstring muscles strength and the single-leg-hop test, respectively. A total of 693 patients (19.6%) achieved symmetrical knee function, reaching a LSI of ≥ 90% in all three tests. Older age (≥ 30 years) (OR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.41–0.61; P < 0.001), MM resection (OR, 0.75; 95% CI 0.57–0.98; P = 0.03) and MM repair (OR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.40–0.98; P = 0.04) reduced the odds, whereas the use of hamstring tendon (HT) autograft (OR, 2.28; 95% CI 1.51–3.45; P < 0.001) over bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autograft increased the odds of achieving symmetrical knee function.


          Only 19.6% of the patients achieved symmetrical knee function 6 months after primary ACLR. Age ≥ 30 years, MM resection and MM repair reduced the chance, whereas the use of HT autograft over BPTB autograft increased the chance of achieving symmetrical knee function 6 months after primary ACLR. This study shows that most of the patients are yet to regain symmetrical knee function 6 months after primary ACLR and, moreover, it identifies several factors affecting its achievement in a large cohort. The results of this study should be used to counsel patients about their expected functional recovery and to optimize rehabilitation and maximize knee function after ACLR.

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          Return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the state of play.

          An athlete's intention to return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a major indication for surgical intervention. The purpose of this review was to determine postoperative return-to-sport outcomes after ACL reconstruction surgery. Meta-analysis and systematic review Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL were searched from the earliest possible entry to April 2010. Studies were included that reported the number of patients returning to sports participation following ACL reconstruction surgery. The results were presented using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a framework and combined using proportion meta-analyses. Forty-eight studies evaluating 5770 participants at a mean follow-up of 41.5 months were included for review. Overall, 82% of participants had returned to some kind of sports participation, 63% had returned to their preinjury level of participation, and 44% had returned to competitive sport at final follow-up. Approximately 90% of participants achieved normal or nearly normal knee function when assessed postoperatively using impairment-based outcomes such as laxity and strength, and 85% when using activity-based outcomes such as the International Knee Documentation Committee knee evaluation form. Fear of reinjury was the most common reason cited for a postoperative reduction in or cessation of sports participation. The relatively low rate of return to competitive sport despite the high rates of successful outcome in terms of knee impairment-based function suggests that other factors such as psychological factors may be contributing to return-to-sport outcomes.
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            Hop testing provides a reliable and valid outcome measure during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

            Although various hop tests have been proposed as performance-based outcome measures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, limited reports of their measurement properties exist. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and longitudinal validity of data obtained from hop tests during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Forty-two patients, 15 to 45 years of age, who had undergone ACL reconstruction participated in the study. The study design was prospective and observational with repeated measures. The subjects performed a series of 4 hop tests on 3 separate occasions within the 16th week following surgery and on a fourth occasion 6 weeks later. The tests were a single hop for distance, a 6-m timed hop, a triple hop for distance, and crossover hops for distance. Performance on the ACL-reconstructed limb was expressed as a percentage of the performance on the nonoperative limb, termed the "limb symmetry index." Subjects also completed the Lower Extremity Functional Scale and a global rating of change questionnaire. Intraclass correlation coefficients for limb symmetry index values ranged from .82 to .93. Standard errors of measurement were 3.04% to 5.59%. Minimal detectable changes, at the 90% confidence level, were 7.05% to 12.96%. Changes in hop test scores on the operative limb were statistically greater than changes on the nonoperative limb. Pearson correlations (r) between change in hop performances and self-reported measures ranged from .26 to .58. The results show that the described series of hop tests provide a reliable and valid performance-based outcome measure for patients undergoing rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction. These findings support the use and facilitate the interpretation of hop tests for research and clinical practice.
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              Muscle strength and hop performance criteria prior to return to sports after ACL reconstruction.

              The purpose of this article is to present recommendations for new muscle strength and hop performance criteria prior to a return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A search was made of relevant literature relating to muscle function, self-reported questionnaires on symptoms, function and knee-related quality of life, as well as the rate of re-injury, the rate of return to sports and the development of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. The literature was reviewed and discussed by the European Board of Sports Rehabilitation in order to reach consensus on criteria for muscle strength and hop performance prior to a return to sports. The majority of athletes that sustain an (ACL) injury do not successfully return to their pre-injury sport, even though most athletes achieve what is considered to be acceptable muscle function. On self-reported questionnaires, the athletes report high ratings for fear of re-injury, low ratings for their knee function during sports and low ratings for their knee-related quality of life. The conclusion is that the muscle function tests that are commonly used are not demanding enough or not sensitive enough to identify differences between injured and non-injured sides. Recommendations for new criteria are given for the sports medicine community to consider, before allowing an athlete to return to sports after an ACL reconstruction.

                Author and article information

                Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
                Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
                Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                18 February 2019
                18 February 2019
                : 27
                : 11
                : 3461-3470
                [1 ]GRID grid.4714.6, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm Sports Trauma Research Center, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [2 ]GRID grid.416138.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0397 3940, Capio Artro Clinic, , FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Sophiahemmet Hospital, ; Valhallavägen 91, 11486 Stockholm, Sweden
                © The Author(s) 2019

                OpenAccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA) 2019


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