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      The Predictive Value of C-Reactive Protein in End-Stage Renal Disease: Is It Clinically Significant?

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. Besides traditional risk factors, disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism and inflammation are thought to be responsible for the increased risk of death. In the last years C-reactive protein (CRP) has gained a lot of attention in the general population, especially with regard to its link with atherosclerosis. Although several studies suggest that CRP may be useful as a parameter in predicting future cardiovascular events in both the general population and in patients with end-stage renal disease, there is doubt about the clinical evidence of this assumption. A statistical association between CRP and cardiovascular disease was observed in various studies, but the predictive power of this association is markedly diminished when adjusted for other risk factors. The relative contributions of CRP as a marker, as a causative agent, or as a consequence of atherosclerotic vascular disease are unclear, both in the general population and in the dialysis population. The CRP levels are highly variable and influenced by intercurrent events in dialysis patients. In dialysis patients, it is possible to reduce the CRP levels by statins, although these agents do not reduce the cardiovascular mortality in diabetic dialysis patients.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Associations of elevated Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive protein levels with mortality in the elderly∗∗Access the “Journal Club” discussion of this paper at http:/www.elsevier.com/locate/ajmselect/

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            Associations between circulating inflammatory markers and residual renal function in CRF patients.

            Circulating levels of cytokines and other inflammation markers are markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure. This could be caused by increased generation, decreased removal, or both. However, it is not well established to what extent renal function per se contributes to the uremic proinflammatory milieu. The aim of the present study is to analyze the relationship between inflammation and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 176 patients (age, 52 +/- 1 years; GFR, 6.5 +/- 0.1 mL/min) close to the initiation of renal replacement therapy. Circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), hyaluronan, and neopterin were measured after an overnight fast. Patients subsequently were subdivided into two groups according to median GFR (6.5 mL/min). Despite the narrow range of GFR (1.8 to 16.5 mL/min), hsCRP, hyaluronan, and neopterin levels were significantly greater in the subgroup with lower GFRs, and significant negative correlations were noted between GFR and IL-6 (rho = -0.18; P < 0.05), hyaluronan (rho = -0.25; P < 0.001), and neopterin (rho = -0.32; P < 0.0005). In multivariate analysis, although age and GFR were associated with inflammation, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus were not. These results show that a low GFR per se is associated with an inflammatory state, suggesting impaired renal elimination of proinflammatory cytokines, increased generation of cytokines in uremia, or an adverse effect of inflammation on renal function.
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              Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events in stable and unstable angina

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2006
                August 2006
                14 August 2006
                : 24
                : 4
                : 335-341
                Affiliations
                Division of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Article
                92279 Blood Purif 2006;24:335–341
                10.1159/000092279
                16557022
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 47, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/92279
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