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      In Vitro Antimicrobial Effect of Cetylpyridinium Chloride on Complex Multispecies Subgingival Biofilm

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          Abstract

          Abstract Periodontopathogenic subgingival biofilm is the main etiological agent of periodontitis. Thus, a search for antimicrobials as adjuvant for periodontal treatment in the literature is intense. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is a well-known antimicrobial agent commonly used in mouthrinses. However, CPC effects on a complex biofilm model were not found over the literature. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript is to evaluate 0.075% CPC antimicrobial properties in a multispecies subgingival biofilm model in vitro. The subgingival biofilm composed by 31 species related to periodontitis was formed for 7 days, using the calgary device. The treatments with CPC and chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.12% (as positive control) were performed 2x/day, for 1 min, from day 3 until the end of experimental period, totaling 8 treatments. After 7 days of biofilm formation, biofilm metabolic activity was evaluated by a colorimetric reaction and biofilms microbial composition by DNA-DNA hybridization. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA with data transformed via BOX-COX followed by Dunnett post-hoc. Both CPC and CHX reduced biofilm metabolic activity in 60% and presented antimicrobial activity against 13 different species. Specifically, only CHX reduced levels of F.n. vicentii and P. gingivalis while only CPC reduced A. odontolyticus and A. israelli. CPC was as effective as CHX as antimicrobial through in vitro complex multispecies subgingival biofilm. However, future studies using in vivo models of experimental periodontal disease should be performed to prove such effect.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo O biofilme subgengival periodontopatogênico é o principal agente etiológico da periodontite. Assim, a pesquisa de antimicrobianos como adjuvantes para o tratamento periodontal na literatura é intensa. Cloreto de cetilpiridínio (CPC) é um agente antimicrobiano comumente usado em enxaguatórios bucais. No entanto não foram encontrados na literatura estudos avaliando os efeitos do CPC em um modelo complexo de biofilme. Portanto, o objetivo deste artigo é avaliar as propriedades antimicrobianas do cloreto de cetilpiridinio 0,075% em um modelo de biofilme subgengival multiespécie in vitro. O biofilme subgengival composto por 31 espécies relacionadas à periodontite foi formado por 7 dias, utilizando o dispositivo calgary. Os tratamentos com CPC e clorexidina (CHX) 0,12% (controle positivo) foram realizados 2x/dia, por 1 min, do dia 3 até o final do período experimental, totalizando 8 tratamentos. Após 7 dias de formação do biofilme, a atividade metabólica do biofilme foi avaliada por reação colorimétrica e a composição microbiana dos biofilmes por hibridização DNA-DNA. A análise estatística foi realizada usando ANOVA com dados transformados via BOX-COX seguido do teste de Dunnett. Tanto o CPC como a CHX reduziram a atividade metabólica do biofilme em aproximadamente 60% e apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra 13 espécies diferentes. Especificamente, apenas os níveis de F.n. Vicentii e P. gingivalis foram reduzidos somente pelo tratamento com a CHX enquanto apenas o CPC reduziu A. odontolyticus e A. israelli. O CPC foi tão eficaz quanto o CHX como antimicrobiano através de biofilme subgengival complexo multiespecífico in vitro. No entanto, futuros estudos usando modelos in vivo de doença periodontal experimental devem ser realizados para comprovar tal efeito.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Periodontitis: from microbial immune subversion to systemic inflammation.

          Periodontitis is a dysbiotic inflammatory disease with an adverse impact on systemic health. Recent studies have provided insights into the emergence and persistence of dysbiotic oral microbial communities that can mediate inflammatory pathology at local as well as distant sites. This Review discusses the mechanisms of microbial immune subversion that tip the balance from homeostasis to disease in oral or extra-oral sites.
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            Chlorhexidine: is it still the gold standard?

             Alison Jones (1997)
            After 20 years of use by the dental profession, chlorhexidine is recognized as the gold standard against which other antiplaque and gingivitis agents are measured. Chlorhexidine's antiplaque effect is a result of the dicationic nature of the chlorhexidine molecule, which affords the agent the property of persistence of antimicrobial effect at the tooth surface, through both bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects. Although other antiplaque agents may show either purely immediate effect, or limited persistence, the degree of chlorhexidine's persistence of effect at the tooth surface is the basis of its clinical efficacy. Similarly, the cationic nature of the chlorhexidine molecule is the basis of the most common side effect associated with the use of the agent--extrinsic tooth staining. Such tooth staining seems to be the result of a local precipitation reaction between tooth-bound chlorhexidine and chromogens found within foodstuffs and beverages. The cationic nature of the chlorhexidine molecule also means that the activity of the agent is rapidly reduced in the presence of anionic agents, specifically those found within certain types of toothpaste; thus care is required when using normal toothbrushing alongside chlorhexidine. By understanding how the chemical properties of the chlorhexidine molecule can explain the plethora of clinical efficacy and safety data, the use of chlorhexidine can be optimally aimed towards the patient groups who would most benefit from the superior therapeutic effect of the agent. Specifically, chlorhexidine would seem to be of most value to patients in whom the ability to perform adequate oral hygiene procedures has been compromised. In these individuals the delivery of the correct dose of chlorhexidine to the tooth surface can be optimized through the judicial use of the several different chlorhexidine formulations now available. Thus, by understanding the properties and limitations of the chlorhexidine molecule, the dental profession can ensure that the efficacy of the agent is maximized, and the side effects associated with the agent are minimized, allowing chlorhexidine to rightly remain the gold standard against which other antiplaque agents are measured.
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              Chlorhexidine mouthrinse as an adjunctive treatment for gingival health

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bdj
                Brazilian Dental Journal
                Braz. Dent. J.
                Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil )
                0103-6440
                1806-4760
                April 2020
                : 31
                : 2
                : 103-108
                Affiliations
                Guarulhos São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Guarulhos orgdiv1Dental Research Division Brazil
                Article
                S0103-64402020000200103 S0103-6440(20)03100200103
                10.1590/0103-6440202002630

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 25, Pages: 6
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                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Articles

                biofilms, chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium, mouthwashes

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