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      Choque séptico: Actualización en la monitorización hemodinámica Translated title: Septic shock in ICU: update in hemodynamic monitoring

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          Abstract

          Si bien los principios básicos para el diagnóstico y la monitorización hemodinámica como los pilares terapéuticos del niño con choque séptico se mantienen en el tiempo, es innegable que en las últimas décadas se han incorporado nuevos y trascendentes conceptos, por lo que es importante que el médico tratante de las unidades de cuidados intensivos tenga conocimiento de ellos a cabalidad. La monitorización hemodinámica es una herramienta que no solamente permite detectar el origen de la inestabilidad hemodinámica sino también guiar el tratamiento y evaluar su efectividad. La resucitación con fluidos debe ser el primer paso en la reanimación del paciente hemodinámicamente inestable. Sin embargo, la determinación clínica del volumen intravascular puede ser, en ocasiones, difícil de establecer en el paciente crítico. Las presiones de llenado cardiaco no son capaces de predecir la respuesta a fluidos. Los indicadores dinámicos de respuesta a fluidos evalúan el cambio en el volumen eyectivo durante la ventilación mecánica; de este modo, se valora la curva de Frank-Starling del paciente. Mediante la prueba de fluido es posible evaluar el grado de la reserva de precarga que se puede utilizar para aumentar el volumen eyectivo. En esta revisión se actualiza la información disponible sobre la monitorización hemodinámica básica y funcional

          Translated abstract

          In recent decades, new and important concepts have emerged for the diagnosis and management of the pediatric patient with septic shock, although the basic principles have remained similar over time. Attending physicians in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) must be fully aware of these concepts in order to improve patient care in the critical care unit. Hemodynamic monitoring is a tool that not only allows detection of the source of hemodynamic instability but also guides treatment and assesses its effectiveness. Fluid loading is considered the first step in the resuscitation of hemodynamically unstable patients. Nevertheless, clinical determination of the intravascular volume can be extremely difficult in a critically ill patient. Studies performed have demonstrated that cardiac filling pressures are unable to predict fluid responsiveness. Dynamic tests of volume responsiveness use the change in stroke volume during mechanical ventilation assessing the patients' Frank-Starling curve. Through fluid challenge the clinician can assess whether the patient has a preload reserve that can be used to increase the stroke volume. In this review we updated the available information on basic and functional hemodynamic monitoring

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          Most cited references 96

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          Effects of intravenous fluid restriction on postoperative complications: comparison of two perioperative fluid regimens: a randomized assessor-blinded multicenter trial.

          To investigate the effect of a restricted intravenous fluid regimen versus a standard regimen on complications after colorectal resection. Current fluid administration in major surgery causes a weight increase of 3-6 kg. Complications after colorectal surgery are reported in up to 68% of patients. Associations between postoperative weight gain and poor survival as well as fluid overload and complications have been shown. We did a randomized observer-blinded multicenter trial. After informed consent was obtained, 172 patients were allocated to either a restricted or a standard intraoperative and postoperative intravenous fluid regimen. The restricted regimen aimed at maintaining preoperative body weight; the standard regimen resembled everyday practice. The primary outcome measures were complications; the secondary measures were death and adverse effects. The restricted intravenous fluid regimen significantly reduced postoperative complications both by intention-to-treat (33% versus 51%, P = 0.013) and per-protocol (30% versus 56%, P = 0.003) analyses. The numbers of both cardiopulmonary (7% versus 24%, P = 0.007) and tissue-healing complications (16% versus 31%, P = 0.04) were significantly reduced. No patients died in the restricted group compared with 4 deaths in the standard group (0% versus 4.7%, P = 0.12). No harmful adverse effects were observed. The restricted perioperative intravenous fluid regimen aiming at unchanged body weight reduces complications after elective colorectal resection.
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            Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? A systematic review of the literature and the tale of seven mares.

            Central venous pressure (CVP) is used almost universally to guide fluid therapy in hospitalized patients. Both historical and recent data suggest that this approach may be flawed. A systematic review of the literature to determine the following: (1) the relationship between CVP and blood volume, (2) the ability of CVP to predict fluid responsiveness, and (3) the ability of the change in CVP (DeltaCVP) to predict fluid responsiveness. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and citation review of relevant primary and review articles. Reported clinical trials that evaluated either the relationship between CVP and blood volume or reported the associated between CVP/DeltaCVP and the change in stroke volume/cardiac index following a fluid challenge. From 213 articles screened, 24 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included for data extraction. The studies included human adult subjects, healthy control subjects, and ICU and operating room patients. Data were abstracted on study design, study size, study setting, patient population, correlation coefficient between CVP and blood volume, correlation coefficient (or receive operator characteristic [ROC]) between CVP/DeltaCVP and change in stroke index/cardiac index, percentage of patients who responded to a fluid challenge, and baseline CVP of the fluid responders and nonresponders. Metaanalytic techniques were used to pool data. The 24 studies included 803 patients; 5 studies compared CVP with measured circulating blood volume, while 19 studies determined the relationship between CVP/DeltaCVP and change in cardiac performance following a fluid challenge. The pooled correlation coefficient between CVP and measured blood volume was 0.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.28). Overall, 56+/-16% of the patients included in this review responded to a fluid challenge. The pooled correlation coefficient between baseline CVP and change in stroke index/cardiac index was 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.28). The pooled area under the ROC curve was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.61). The pooled correlation between DeltaCVP and change in stroke index/cardiac index was 0.11 (95% CI, 0.015 to 0.21). Baseline CVP was 8.7+/-2.32 mm Hg [mean+/-SD] in the responders as compared to 9.7+/-2.2 mm Hg in nonresponders (not significant). This systematic review demonstrated a very poor relationship between CVP and blood volume as well as the inability of CVP/DeltaCVP to predict the hemodynamic response to a fluid challenge. CVP should not be used to make clinical decisions regarding fluid management.
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              Dynamic changes in arterial waveform derived variables and fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review of the literature.

              : A systematic review of the literature to determine the ability of dynamic changes in arterial waveform-derived variables to predict fluid responsiveness and compare these with static indices of fluid responsiveness. The assessment of a patient's intravascular volume is one of the most difficult tasks in critical care medicine. Conventional static hemodynamic variables have proven unreliable as predictors of volume responsiveness. Dynamic changes in systolic pressure, pulse pressure, and stroke volume in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation have emerged as useful techniques to assess volume responsiveness. : MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials and citation review of relevant primary and review articles. : Clinical studies that evaluated the association between stroke volume variation, pulse pressure variation, and/or stroke volume variation and the change in stroke volume/cardiac index after a fluid or positive end-expiratory pressure challenge. : Data were abstracted on study design, study size, study setting, patient population, and the correlation coefficient and/or receiver operating characteristic between the baseline systolic pressure variation, stroke volume variation, and/or pulse pressure variation and the change in stroke index/cardiac index after a fluid challenge. When reported, the receiver operating characteristic of the central venous pressure, global end-diastolic volume index, and left ventricular end-diastolic area index were also recorded. Meta-analytic techniques were used to summarize the data. Twenty-nine studies (which enrolled 685 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 56% of patients responded to a fluid challenge. The pooled correlation coefficients between the baseline pulse pressure variation, stroke volume variation, systolic pressure variation, and the change in stroke/cardiac index were 0.78, 0.72, and 0.72, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.94, 0.84, and 0.86, respectively, compared with 0.55 for the central venous pressure, 0.56 for the global end-diastolic volume index, and 0.64 for the left ventricular end-diastolic area index. The mean threshold values were 12.5 +/- 1.6% for the pulse pressure variation and 11.6 +/- 1.9% for the stroke volume variation. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.89, 0.88, and 59.86 for the pulse pressure variation and 0.82, 0.86, and 27.34 for the stroke volume variation, respectively. : Dynamic changes of arterial waveform-derived variables during mechanical ventilation are highly accurate in predicting volume responsiveness in critically ill patients with an accuracy greater than that of traditional static indices of volume responsiveness. This technique, however, is limited to patients who receive controlled ventilation and who are not breathing spontaneously.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bmim
                Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México
                Bol. Med. Hosp. Infant. Mex.
                Instituto Nacional de Salud, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (México )
                1665-1146
                August 2013
                : 70
                : 4
                : 273-282
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad del Desarrollo Chile
                [2 ] Hospital Padre Hurtado Chile
                Article
                S1665-11462013000400002
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Pediatrics

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