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      Recording Electrical Brain Activity with Novel Stretchable Electrodes Based on Supersonic Cluster Beam Implantation Nanotechnology on Conformable Polymers

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          Abstract

          Background

          Multielectrodes are implanted in central and peripheral nervous systems for rehabilitation and diagnostic purposes. The physical resistance of intracranial devices to mechanical stress is critical and fractures or electrode displacement may occur. We describe here a new recording device with stretchable properties based on Supersonic Cluster Beam Implantation (SCBI) technology with high mechanical adaptability to displacement and movement.

          Results

          The capability of SCBI-based multichannel electrodes to record brain electrical activity was compared to glass/silicon microelectrodes in acute in vitro experiments on the isolated guinea pig brain preparation. Field potentials and power frequency analysis demonstrated equal recording features for SCBI and standard electrodes. Chronic in vivo epidural implantation of the SCBI electrodes confirmed excellent long-term recording properties in comparison to standard EEG metal electrodes. Tissue biocompatibility was demonstrated by neuropathological evaluation of the brain tissue 2 months after the implantation of the devices in the subarachnoid space.

          Conclusion

          We confirm the biocompatibility of novel SCBI-based stretchable electrode devices and demonstrate their suitability for recording electrical brain activity in pre-clinical settings.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics.

          Electronics that are capable of intimate, non-invasive integration with the soft, curvilinear surfaces of biological tissues offer important opportunities for diagnosing and treating disease and for improving brain/machine interfaces. This article describes a material strategy for a type of bio-interfaced system that relies on ultrathin electronics supported by bioresorbable substrates of silk fibroin. Mounting such devices on tissue and then allowing the silk to dissolve and resorb initiates a spontaneous, conformal wrapping process driven by capillary forces at the biotic/abiotic interface. Specialized mesh designs and ultrathin forms for the electronics ensure minimal stresses on the tissue and highly conformal coverage, even for complex curvilinear surfaces, as confirmed by experimental and theoretical studies. In vivo, neural mapping experiments on feline animal models illustrate one mode of use for this class of technology. These concepts provide new capabilities for implantable and surgical devices.
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            Biomaterials. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces.

            The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.
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              NeuroGrid: recording action potentials from the surface of the brain

              Recording from neural networks at the resolution of action potentials is critical for understanding how information is processed in the brain. Here, we address this challenge by developing an organic material-based, ultra-conformable, biocompatible and scalable neural interface array (the ‘NeuroGrid’) that can record both LFP and action potentials from superficial cortical neurons without penetrating the brain surface. Spikes with features of interneurons and pyramidal cells were simultaneously acquired by multiple neighboring electrodes of the NeuroGrid, allowing for isolation of putative single neurons in rats. Spiking activity demonstrated consistent phase modulation by ongoing brain oscillations and was stable in recordings exceeding one week. We also recorded LFP-modulated spiking activity intra-operatively in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. The NeuroGrid constitutes an effective method for large-scale, stable recording of neuronal spikes in concert with local population synaptic activity, enhancing comprehension of neural processes across spatiotemporal scales and potentially facilitating diagnosis and therapy for brain disorders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                IJN
                intjnano
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                24 December 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 10079-10089
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unit of Epileptology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta , Milano, Italy
                [2 ]WISE Srl, Cologno Monzese , Milano, Italy
                [3 ]Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Neurorehabilitation, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital , Roma, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Vadym Gnatkovsky Unit of Epileptology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta , Via Amadeo, 42, Milano20133, ItalyTel +39 0223944518 Email Vadym.Gnatkovsky@istituto-besta.it
                Article
                224243
                10.2147/IJN.S224243
                6935312
                © 2019 Gnatkovsky et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 32, Pages: 11
                Funding
                The study is supported by the Italian Health Ministry grant RF-2010-2304417.
                Categories
                Original Research

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