Chyloperitoneum is a rare condition in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. We report here a patient who developed chylous ascites during the course of tuberculous peritonitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by cultures of dialysate and peritoneal biopsy, and laparoscopy revealed severe hyperemia and intestine adhesion. Intrinsic lymphatic obstruction and superimposed peritoneal fibrosis together might be responsible for the pathogenesis of this special presentation. Although in most cases of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the causes of chyloperitoneum remained unknown, we suggest, from the experience of this case, that tuberculous peritonitis, especially the fibroadhesive form, should be highly suspected in any dialysis cases with chyloperitoneum. Laparoscopy should be initiated early, particularly when the culture is negative for common pathogens or when the patient responds poorly to the usual antimicrobial agents.