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      Interaction Between Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and Decoy Receptor 3 Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients


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          Background: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common and associated with poor outcome in hemodialysis patients. In hemodialysis patients, geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) have been shown as the nutritional and inflammatory markers, respectively. The present study aimed to assess the predictive ability of GNRI and DcR3 for PEW status and long-term outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods: A prospective cohort of 318 hemodialysis patients was conducted with a median follow-up of 54 months. Malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) was used as the reference standard for the presence of PEW. Endpoints were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Results: Baseline GNRI had a strong negative correlation with DcR3 and MIS score. For patients with age < or ≥60, high DcR3 and low GNRI were independent predictors for the presence of PEW at baseline. At the end of the study, 81 patients died (27 cardiovascular deaths). The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of low GNRI and high DcR3 were 1.93 (1.1-4.8) and 2.53 (1.2-5.5) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.85 (1.1-3.2) and 2.37 (1.5-3.7) for all-cause mortality, respectively. While integrated into a model of conventional risk factors, GNRI together with DcR3 further significantly improved the predictability for overall mortality ( c statistic, 0.823). Conclusions: Low GNRI and high DcR3 were the alternatives for identifying hemodialysis patients at risk of PEW and overall mortality. Further studies are needed to verify whether timely recognition of hemodialysis patients with a high malnutrition-inflammation risk could reduce their mortality by appropriate interventional strategies.

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          A malnutrition-inflammation score is correlated with morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

          Malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) occurs commonly in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and may correlate with increased morbidity and mortality. An optimal, comprehensive, quantitative system that assesses MICS could be a useful measure of clinical status and may be a predictor of outcome in MHD patients. We therefore attempted to develop and validate such an instrument, comparing it with conventional measures of nutrition and inflammation, as well as prospective hospitalization and mortality. Using components of the conventional Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), a semiquantitative scale with three severity levels, the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS), a fully quantitative scoring system consisting of 7 SGA components, with total score ranging between 7 (normal) and 35 (severely malnourished), was recently developed. To improve the DMS, we added three new elements to the 7 DMS components: body mass index, serum albumin level, and total iron-binding capacity to represent serum transferrin level. This new comprehensive Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) has 10 components, each with four levels of severity, from 0 (normal) to 3 (very severe). The sum of all 10 MIS components ranges from 0 to 30, denoting increasing degree of severity. These scores were compared with anthropometric measurements, near-infrared-measured body fat percentage, laboratory measures that included serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and 12-month prospective hospitalization and mortality rates. Eighty-three outpatients (44 men, 39 women; age, 59 +/- 15 years) on MHD therapy for at least 3 months (43 +/- 33 months) were evaluated at the beginning of this study and followed up for 1 year. The SGA, DMS, and MIS were assessed simultaneously on all patients by a trained physician. Case-mix-adjusted correlation coefficients for the MIS were significant for hospitalization days (r = 0.45; P < 0.001) and frequency of hospitalization (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). Compared with the SGA and DMS, most pertinent correlation coefficients were stronger with the MIS. The MIS, but not the SGA or DMS, correlated significantly with creatinine level, hematocrit, and CRP level. During the 12-month follow-up, 9 patients died and 6 patients left the cohort. The Cox proportional hazard-calculated relative risk for death for each 10-unit increase in the MIS was 10.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.28 to 47.64; P = 0.002). The MIS was superior to its components or different subversions for predicting mortality. The MIS appears to be a comprehensive scoring system with significant associations with prospective hospitalization and mortality, as well as measures of nutrition, inflammation, and anemia in MHD patients. The MIS may be superior to the conventional SGA and the DMS, as well as to individual laboratory values, as a predictor of dialysis outcome and an indicator of MICS.
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            Are there two types of malnutrition in chronic renal failure? Evidence for relationships between malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome).

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              TL1A is a TNF-like ligand for DR3 and TR6/DcR3 and functions as a T cell costimulator.

              DR3 is a death domain-containing receptor that is upregulated during T cell activation and whose overexpression induces apoptosis and NF-kappaB activation in cell lines. Here we show that an endothelial cell-derived TNF-like factor, TL1A, is a ligand for DR3 and decoy receptor TR6/DcR3 and that its expression is inducible by TNF and IL-1alpha. TL1A induces NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis in DR3-expressing cell lines, while TR6-Fc protein antagonizes these signaling events. Interestingly, in T cells, TL1A acts as a costimulator that increases IL-2 responsiveness and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that interaction of TL1A with DR3 promotes T cell expansion during an immune response, whereas TR6 has an opposing effect.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                October 2014
                10 October 2014
                : 40
                : 3
                : 191-199
                aDivision of Nephrology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taitung Branch, Taitung, bDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Wei Gong Memorial Hospital, Miaoli, cJen Mei Clinic, dJen Xin Clinic, New Taipei City, eDepartment and Institute of Physiology, fInstitute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, and gDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                Author notes
                *Der-Cherng Tarng, MD, PhD, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 201, Section 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 11217 (Taiwan), E-Mail dctarng@vghtpe.gov.tw
                Author information
                366457 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:191-199
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 23 July 2014
                : 04 August 2014
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 9
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Hemodialysis,Geriatric nutritional risk index,Decoy receptor 3,Protein-energy wasting


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