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      Marine Structure Derived Calcium Phosphate–Polymer Biocomposites for Local Antibiotic Delivery

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          Hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles loaded with medically active substances were used to develop polylactic acid (PLA) thin film composites for slow drug delivery systems. The effects of HAp particles within PLA matrix on the gentamicin (GM) release and release kinetics were studied. The gentamicin release kinetics seemed to follow Power law Korsmeyer Peppas model with mainly diffusional process with a number of different drug transport mechanisms. Statistical analysis shows very significant difference on the release of gentamicin between GM containing PLA (PLAGM) and GM containing HAp microspheres within PLA matrix (PLAHApGM) devices, which PLAHApGM displays lower release rates. The use of HAp particles improved drug stabilization and higher drug encapsulation efficiency of the carrier. HAp is also the source of Ca 2+ for the regeneration and repair of diseased bone tissue. The release profiles, exhibited a steady state release rate with significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) (SH1000) even at high concentration of bacteria. The devices also indicated significant ability to control the growth of bacterial even after four weeks of drug release. Clinical release profiles can be easily tuned from drug-HAp physicochemical interactions and degradation kinetics of polymer matrix. The developed systems could be applied to prevent microbial adhesion to medical implant surfaces and to treat infections mainly caused by S. aureus in surgery.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Polymers for drug delivery systems.

          Polymers have played an integral role in the advancement of drug delivery technology by providing controlled release of therapeutic agents in constant doses over long periods, cyclic dosage, and tunable release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. From early beginnings using off-the-shelf materials, the field has grown tremendously, driven in part by the innovations of chemical engineers. Modern advances in drug delivery are now predicated upon the rational design of polymers tailored for specific cargo and engineered to exert distinct biological functions. In this review, we highlight the fundamental drug delivery systems and their mathematical foundations and discuss the physiological barriers to drug delivery. We review the origins and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems and polymer therapeutics such as polymer-protein and polymer-drug conjugates. The latest developments in polymers capable of molecular recognition or directing intracellular delivery are surveyed to illustrate areas of research advancing the frontiers of drug delivery.
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            Mathematical modeling of drug delivery from autocatalytically degradable PLGA microspheres--a review.

            PLGA microspheres are widely studied for controlled release drug delivery applications, and many models have been proposed to describe PLGA degradation and erosion and drug release from the bulk polymer. Autocatalysis is known to have a complex role in the dynamics of PLGA erosion and drug transport and can lead to size-dependent heterogeneities in otherwise uniformly bulk-eroding polymer microspheres. The aim of this review is to highlight mechanistic, mathematical models for drug release from PLGA microspheres that specifically address interactions between phenomena generally attributed to autocatalytic hydrolysis and mass transfer limitation effects. Predictions of drug release profiles by mechanistic models are useful for understanding mechanisms and designing drug release particles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Natural bioceramics: from coral to bone and beyond

               B. Ben-Nissan (2003)

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                Marine Drugs
                20 January 2015
                January 2015
                : 13
                : 1
                : 666-680
                [1 ]School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, Australia; E-Mail: innocent.macha@ 123456uts.edu.au
                [2 ]CIRIMAT Carnot Institute, CNRS-INPT-UPS, University of Toulouse, 31030 Toulouse, France; E-Mail: sophie.cazalbou@ 123456univ-tlse3.fr
                [3 ]The ithree Institute, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia; E-Mail: Kate.l.harvey@ 123456student.uts.edu.au
                [4 ]Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia; E-Mail: Bruce.Milthorpe@ 123456uts.edu.au
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: Besim.Ben-Nissan@ 123456uts.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-2-9514-1784.
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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