Hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine content was studied in dogs with spontaneous and iatrogenic hypercortisolism and in untreated normal dogs. The concentration of NE in the hypothalamus was subnormal in 4 of 8 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), whereas long-term administration of corticotropin or cortisone acetate did not result in low hypothalamic NE content. In dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to adrenocortical tumor subnormal as well as normal and high hypothalamic NE levels were found. Hypothalamic as well as striatal dopamine content did not differ among groups of dogs with PDH, adrenocortical tumor, corticotropin treatment, cortisone treatment and in untreated normal dogs. The subnormal hypothalamic NE levels in dogs with PDH may be involved in the hypersecretion of ACTH found in this disease. The normal hypothalamic dopamine levels in dogs with PDH are not consistent with a dopaminergic depletion as the cause of PDH.