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Diabetes and Body Mass Index Are Associated with Neuropathy and Prognosis in Colon Cancer Patients Treated with Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Adjuvant Chemotherapy

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      Background: There are few background data on the impact of clinical factors on neurotoxicity and prognosis in patients treated with adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) chemotherapy. Methods: 102 stage II high-risk and stage III colorectal cancer patients were treated for 6 months with adjuvant CAPOX, then they were followed up. Associations between clinical variables, metabolic syndrome components, smoking and neurotoxicity were evaluated by the χ2 test. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was applied to graph disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate analysis was done with the log-rank test. Cox's proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the effect of several risk factors on DFS. Results: Significant associations were found between diabetes (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.01) and the occurrence of chronic neurotoxicity. After a median follow-up of 46 months, 14 patients (13.7%) had suffered recurrence. An analysis of the prognostic factors for DFS showed that prognosis is unfavorable for patients with high lymph-nodal involvement (HR: 5.23, p = 0.0007), diabetes (HR: 4.86; p = 0.03) and a BMI ≥25 (HR: 3.69, p = 0.002). Discussion: Common mediators in diabetes and obesity could be involved in peripheral neuropathy and in stimulating micro-metastases. Further studies are necessary to explain this interesting connection between diabetes, obesity and colon cancer.

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      Most cited references 28

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      Cancer statistics, 2010.

      Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data regarding cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Incidence and death rates are age-standardized to the 2000 US standard million population. A total of 1,529,560 new cancer cases and 569,490 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2010. Overall cancer incidence rates decreased in the most recent time period in both men (1.3% per year from 2000 to 2006) and women (0.5% per year from 1998 to 2006), largely due to decreases in the 3 major cancer sites in men (lung, prostate, and colon and rectum [colorectum]) and 2 major cancer sites in women (breast and colorectum). This decrease occurred in all racial/ethnic groups in both men and women with the exception of American Indian/Alaska Native women, in whom rates were stable. Among men, death rates for all races combined decreased by 21.0% between 1990 and 2006, with decreases in lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer rates accounting for nearly 80% of the total decrease. Among women, overall cancer death rates between 1991 and 2006 decreased by 12.3%, with decreases in breast and colorectal cancer rates accounting for 60% of the total decrease. The reduction in the overall cancer death rates translates to the avoidance of approximately 767,000 deaths from cancer over the 16-year period. This report also examines cancer incidence, mortality, and survival by site, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic area, and calendar year. Although progress has been made in reducing incidence and mortality rates and improving survival, cancer still accounts for more deaths than heart disease in persons younger than 85 years. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population and by supporting new discoveries in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment. Copyright 2010 American Cancer Society, Inc.
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        Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

        Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its main binding protein, IGFBP-3, modulate cell growth and survival, and are thought to be important in tumour development. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I might be associated with an increased risk of cancer, whereas IGFBP-3 concentrations could be associated with a decreased cancer risk. We did a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of case-control studies, including studies nested in cohorts, of the association between concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and prostate, colorectal, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast, and lung cancer. Study-specific dose-response slopes were obtained by relating the natural log of odds ratios for different exposure levels to blood concentrations normalised to a percentile scale. We identified 21 eligible studies (26 datasets), which included 3609 cases and 7137 controls. High concentrations of IGF-I were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio comparing 75th with 25th percentile 1.49, 95% CI 1.14-1.95) and premenopausal breast cancer (1.65, 1.26-2.08) and high concentrations of IGFBP-3 were associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (1.51, 1.01-2.27). Associations were larger in assessments of plasma samples than in serum samples, and in standard case-control studies compared with nested studies. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are associated with an increased risk of common cancers, but associations are modest and vary between sites. Although laboratory methods need to be standardised, these epidemiological observations could have major implications for assessment of risk and prevention of cancer.
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          Is Open Access

          Obesity and cancer risk: evidence, mechanisms, and recommendations

          Obesity, a growing health problem worldwide, has been associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and other chronic diseases. Recently, the obesity–cancer link has received much attention. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is also associated with increased risk of several cancer types, including colon, breast, endometrium, liver, kidney, esophagus, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, and leukemia, and can also lead to poorer treatment and increased cancer-related mortality. Biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and cancer are not well understood. They include modulation of energy balance and calorie restriction, growth factors, multiple signaling pathways, and inflammatory processes. Key among the signaling pathways linking obesity and cancer is the PI3K/Akt/mTOR cascade, which is a target of many of the obesity-associated factors and regulates cell proliferation and survival. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the obesity–cancer connection is important in developing potential therapeutics. The link between obesity and cancer underscores the recommendation to maintain a healthy body weight throughout life as one of the most important ways to protect against cancer.

            Author and article information

            aDepartment of Abdominal Oncology, bPharmacy Unit, and cMolecular Immunology and Immuneregulation, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, IRCCS - Fondazione G. Pascale, and dPharmacy Unit, ASL 3, Ercolano, Naples, Italy
            S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ )
            January 2016
            06 January 2016
            : 90
            : 1
            : 36-42
            Oncology 2016;90:36-42
            © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 32, Pages: 7
            Clinical Study

            Medicine, General social science

            Toxicity, Adjuvant chemotherapy, Colon cancer, Prognosis


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