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      Diversity of coral-associated pit crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cryptochiridae) from Hong Kong, with description of two new species of Lithoscaptus A. Milne-Edwards, 1862

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      Frontiers in Marine Science
      Frontiers Media SA

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          Abstract

          Highly specialized cryptochirid crabs are obligate symbionts of scleractinian corals in tropical and subtropical seas. General morphologies of cryptochirid crabs remain poorly described due to their small size and difficulties in collection; thus, the current inventory is probably an underestimation. In the present study, we sampled cryptochirid crabs from coral communities in Hong Kong. In the literature, only Cryptochirus hongkongensis(now Neotroglocarcinus hongkongensis) with unknown hosts had been recorded in Hong Kong since 1936. In addition to morphological examination, identification in the present study is further supported by sequence divergence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and 16S ribosomal DNA markers. Six operative taxonomic units (OTUs), representing four species and one species complex with two species, were revealed among our material: Cryptochirus coralliodytes, Lithoscaptus paradoxus, Lithoscaptus doughnutsp. nov., Lithoscaptus scottaesp. nov., and Xynomaia shenispecies complex. Morphological description of these species is provided, including description of the two new pseudocryptic species. The hosts of the genus Lithoscaptusbelong largely to the Merulinidae, while L. doughnutsp. nov. inhabits the Plesiastreidae.

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            MEGA11: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 11

            The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software has matured to contain a large collection of methods and tools of computational molecular evolution. Here, we describe new additions that make MEGA a more comprehensive tool for building timetrees of species, pathogens, and gene families using rapid relaxed-clock methods. Methods for estimating divergence times and confidence intervals are implemented to use probability densities for calibration constraints for node-dating and sequence sampling dates for tip-dating analyses. They are supported by new options for tagging sequences with spatiotemporal sampling information, an expanded interactive Node Calibrations Editor , and an extended Tree Explorer to display timetrees. Also added is a Bayesian method for estimating neutral evolutionary probabilities of alleles in a species using multispecies sequence alignments and a machine learning method to test for the autocorrelation of evolutionary rates in phylogenies. The computer memory requirements for the maximum likelihood analysis are reduced significantly through reprogramming, and the graphical user interface has been made more responsive and interactive for very big data sets. These enhancements will improve the user experience, quality of results, and the pace of biological discovery. Natively compiled graphical user interface and command-line versions of MEGA11 are available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, and macOS from www.megasoftware.net .
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              Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation.

              The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species (two or more distinct species classified as a single species) has been recognized for nearly 300 years, but the advent of relatively inexpensive and rapid DNA sequencing has given biologists a new tool for detecting and differentiating morphologically similar species. Here, we synthesize the literature on cryptic and sibling species and discuss trends in their discovery. However, a lack of systematic studies leaves many questions open, such as whether cryptic species are more common in particular habitats, latitudes or taxonomic groups. The discovery of cryptic species is likely to be non-random with regard to taxon and biome and, hence, could have profound implications for evolutionary theory, biogeography and conservation planning.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Marine Science
                Front. Mar. Sci.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2296-7745
                January 4 2023
                January 4 2023
                : 9
                Article
                10.3389/fmars.2022.1003321
                6de68a6e-6c3f-4803-b7a5-ea4b1de3052a
                © 2023

                Free to read

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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