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      Potential Economic Benefits of Paid Sick Leave in Reducing Absenteeism Related to the Spread of Influenza-Like Illness :

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          Abstract

          <div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S1"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7160461e112">Objective</h5> <p id="P1">Most U.S. employers are not required to provide paid sick leave (PSL), and there is limited information on the economic return of providing PSL. We estimated potential benefits to employers of PSL in reducing absenteeism related to the spread of influenza-like illness (ILI). </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S2"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7160461e117">Methods</h5> <p id="P2">We used nationally representative data and a negative binomial random effects model to estimate the impact of PSL in reducing overall absence due to illness or injury. We used published data to compute the share of ILI from the total days of absence, ILI transmission rates at workplaces, wages, and other parameters. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S3"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7160461e122">Results</h5> <p id="P3">Providing PSL could have saved employers $0.63 to $1.88 billion in reduced ILI-related absenteeism costs per year during 2007 to 2014 in 2016 dollars. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S4"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7160461e127">Conclusion</h5> <p id="P4">These findings might help employers consider PSL as an investment rather than as a cost without any return. </p> </div>

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          Most cited references19

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          The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: priorities for intervention.

          We estimated the possible effects of the next influenza pandemic in the United States and analyzed the economic impact of vaccine-based interventions. Using death rates, hospitalization data, and outpatient visits, we estimated 89,000 to 207,000 deaths; 314,000 to 734,000 hospitalizations; 18 to 42 million outpatient visits; and 20 to 47 million additional illnesses. Patients at high risk (15% of the population) would account for approximately 84% of all deaths. The estimated economic impact would be US$71.3 to $166.5 billion, excluding disruptions to commerce and society. At $21 per vaccinee, we project a net savings to society if persons in all age groups are vaccinated. At $62 per vaccinee and at gross attack rates of 25%, we project net losses if persons not at high risk for complications are vaccinated. Vaccinating 60% of the population would generate the highest economic returns but may not be possible within the time required for vaccine effectiveness, especially if two doses of vaccine are required.
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            Attendance dynamics at work: the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss.

            Gary Johns (2011)
            Presenteeism is attending work when ill. This study examined the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss attributed to presenteeism. Predictors included work context, personal characteristics, and work experiences. Business school graduates employed in a variety of work positions (N = 444) completed a Web-based survey. Presenteeism was positively associated with task significance, task interdependence, ease of replacement, and work to family conflict and negatively associated with neuroticism, equity, job security, internal health locus of control, and the perceived legitimacy of absence. Absenteeism was positively related to task significance, perceived absence legitimacy, and family to work conflict and negatively related to task interdependence and work to family conflict. Those high on neuroticism, the unconscientious, the job-insecure, those who viewed absence as more legitimate, and those experiencing work-family conflict reported more productivity loss. Overall, the results reveal the value of a behavioral approach to presenteeism over and above a strict medical model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
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              Cost-benefit analysis of a strategy to vaccinate healthy working adults against influenza.

              Influenza is a major cause of illness, disruption to daily life, and work absenteeism among healthy working adults aged between 18 and 64 years. This group is not included among the traditional priority groups for annual vaccination. Immunization rates remain low. To assess the economic implications of a strategy for annual vaccination of this group. Using the societal perspective, this cost-benefit analysis included the direct and indirect costs associated with vaccination as well as the direct and indirect costs prevented by vaccination. Clinical and economic variable estimates were derived primarily from the published literature. For this model, it was assumed that vaccination occurred in efficient, low-cost settings such as at the work site. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the mean net costs or savings along with the 95% probability interval, and sensitivity analyses explored the sensitivity of the cost model to different values of the input variables. Vaccinating healthy working adults was on average cost saving, with mean savings of $13.66 per person vaccinated (95% probability interval: net savings of $32.97 to net costs of $2.18), with vaccination generating net savings 95% of the time. The model was most sensitive to the influenza illness rate, the work absenteeism rate due to influenza, and hourly wages. In the worst-case scenario vaccination was not cost saving. Vaccination also generated net costs to society during years with a poor vaccine-circulating virus strain match. In all of the other sensitivity analysis scenarios, vaccination was cost saving. Influenza vaccination of healthy working adults on average is cost saving. These findings support a strategy of routine, annual vaccination for this group, especially when vaccination occurs in efficient and low-cost sites.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
                Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1076-2752
                2017
                September 2017
                : 59
                : 9
                : 822-829
                Article
                10.1097/JOM.0000000000001076
                5649342
                28692009
                6de6ac89-a554-468d-add7-7f807424ce8b
                © 2017

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