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      Preserved BK Channel Function in Vasospastic Myocytes from a Dog Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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          Abstract

          Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is due to contraction of smooth muscle cells in the cerebral arteries. The mechanism of this contraction, however, is not well understood. Smooth muscle contraction is regulated in part by membrane potential, which is determined by K<sup>+</sup> conductance in smooth muscle. Voltage-gated (Kv) and large-conductance, Ca<sup>2+</sup>-activated K<sup>+</sup> (BK) channels dominate arterial smooth muscle K<sup>+</sup> conductance. Vasospastic smooth muscle cells are depolarized relative to normal cells, but whether this is due to altered Kv or BK channel function has not been determined. This study determined if BK channels are altered during vasospasm after SAH in dogs. We first characterized BK channels in basilar-artery smooth muscle using whole-cell patch clamping and single-channel recordings. Next, we compared BK channel function between normal and vasospastic cells. There were no significant differences between normal and vasospastic cells in BK current density, kinetics, Ca<sup>2+</sup> and voltage sensitivity, single-channel conductance or apparent Ca<sup>2+</sup> affinity. Basilar-artery myocytes had no, small- or intermediate-conductance, Ca<sup>2+</sup>-activated K<sup>+</sup> channels. The lack of difference in BK channels between vasospastic and control cells suggests alteration(s) in other K<sup>+</sup> channels or other ionic conductances may underlie the membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction observed during vasospasm after SAH.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by calcium sparks.

          Local increases in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) resulting from activation of the ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of smooth muscle cause arterial dilation. Ryanodine-sensitive, spontaneous local increases in [Ca2+]i (Ca2+ sparks) from the SR were observed just under the surface membrane of single smooth muscle cells from myogenic cerebral arteries. Ryanodine and thapsigargin inhibited Ca2+ sparks and Ca(2+)-dependent potassium (KCa) currents, suggesting that Ca2+ sparks activate KCa channels. Furthermore, KCa channels activated by Ca2+ sparks appeared to hyperpolarize and dilate pressurized myogenic arteries because ryanodine and thapsigargin depolarized and constricted these arteries to an extent similar to that produced by blockers of KCa channels. Ca2+ sparks indirectly cause vasodilation through activation of KCa channels, but have little direct effect on spatially averaged [Ca2+]i, which regulates contraction.
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            Coupling between Voltage Sensor Activation, Ca2+ Binding and Channel Opening in Large Conductance (BK) Potassium Channels

            To determine how intracellular Ca2+ and membrane voltage regulate the gating of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels, we examined the steady-state and kinetic properties of mSlo1 ionic and gating currents in the presence and absence of Ca2+ over a wide range of voltage. The activation of unliganded mSlo1 channels can be accounted for by allosteric coupling between voltage sensor activation and the closed (C) to open (O) conformational change (Horrigan, F.T., and R.W. Aldrich. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:305–336; Horrigan, F.T., J. Cui, and R.W. Aldrich. 1999. J. Gen. Physiol. 114:277–304). In 0 Ca2+, the steady-state gating charge-voltage (QSS-V) relationship is shallower and shifted to more negative voltages than the conductance-voltage (GK-V) relationship. Calcium alters the relationship between Q-V and G-V, shifting both to more negative voltages such that they almost superimpose in 70 μM Ca2+. This change reflects a differential effect of Ca2+ on voltage sensor activation and channel opening. Ca2+ has only a small effect on the fast component of ON gating current, indicating that Ca2+ binding has little effect on voltage sensor activation when channels are closed. In contrast, open probability measured at very negative voltages (less than −80 mV) increases more than 1,000-fold in 70 μM Ca2+, demonstrating that Ca2+ increases the C-O equilibrium constant under conditions where voltage sensors are not activated. Thus, Ca2+ binding and voltage sensor activation act almost independently, to enhance channel opening. This dual-allosteric mechanism can reproduce the steady-state behavior of mSlo1 over a wide range of conditions, with the assumption that activation of individual Ca2+ sensors or voltage sensors additively affect the energy of the C-O transition and that a weak interaction between Ca2+ sensors and voltage sensors occurs independent of channel opening. By contrast, macroscopic IK kinetics indicate that Ca2+ and voltage dependencies of C-O transition rates are complex, leading us to propose that the C-O conformational change may be described by a complex energy landscape.
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              Intrinsic Voltage Dependence and Ca2+ Regulation of mslo Large Conductance Ca-activated K+ Channels

               J Cui,  D.H. Cox,  R.W. Aldrich (1997)
              The kinetic and steady-state properties of macroscopic mslo Ca-activated K+ currents were studied in excised patches from Xenopus oocytes. In response to voltage steps, the timecourse of both activation and deactivation, but for a brief delay in activation, could be approximated by a single exponential function over a wide range of voltages and internal Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca]i). Activation rates increased with voltage and with [Ca]i, and approached saturation at high [Ca]i. Deactivation rates generally decreased with [Ca]i and voltage, and approached saturation at high [Ca]i. Plots of the macroscopic conductance as a function of voltage (G-V) and the time constant of activation and deactivation shifted leftward along the voltage axis with increasing [Ca]i. G-V relations could be approximated by a Boltzmann function with an equivalent gating charge which ranged between 1.1 and 1.8 e as [Ca]i varied between 0.84 and 1,000 μM. Hill analysis indicates that at least three Ca2+ binding sites can contribute to channel activation. Three lines of evidence indicate that there is at least one voltage-dependent unimolecular conformational change associated with mslo gating that is separate from Ca2+ binding. (a) The position of the mslo G-V relation does not vary logarithmically with [Ca]i. (b) The macroscopic rate constant of activation approaches saturation at high [Ca]i but remains voltage dependent. (c) With strong depolarizations mslo currents can be nearly maximally activated without binding Ca2+. These results can be understood in terms of a channel which must undergo a central voltage-dependent rate limiting conformational change in order to move from closed to open, with rapid Ca2+ binding to both open and closed states modulating this central step.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2008
                August 2008
                10 April 2008
                : 45
                : 5
                : 402-415
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center and Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill., USA; bDivision of Neurosurgery, St. Michael’s Hospital, Keenan Research Center, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, and Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada
                Article
                124864 J Vasc Res 2008;45:402–415
                10.1159/000124864
                18401179
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 45, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Paper

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