The relocation of rural people away from marginal or fragile lands is an increasingly common approach used in China to achieve environmental protection and development objectives. However at present few studies have been made of the social impacts of such resettlement projects in China. Several key social dimensions of a significant resettlement project in the Tibet Autonomous Region are therefore analysed and discussed in this paper. It was specifically posited that the research findings presented here would (1) provide useful guidance for local government offices and government staff workers who are engaged in poverty reduction and agricultural development work; and (2) help to give residents of the community under consideration more voice and opportunity to interact with the outside world. A field survey was designed and led by the lead author in June 2009, with semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire, to ascertain the present situation in the target village and thus help to provide a useful basis for future policy recommendations.