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      Chronic Development of Ischaemic Mitral Regurgitation during Post-Infarction Remodelling

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Mitral regurgitation (MR) following myocardial infarction (MI) may be a (sub)acute complication which independently predicts reduced survival. We sought to evaluate the chronic development of MR as potential consequence of left-ventricular (LV) remodelling, the latter being a long-term process. Methods and Results: Retrospectively, 103 post-MI patients were included according to a standardised Doppler echocardiogram <3 months following MI (20 ± 25 days post-MI) and a follow-up examination >6 months after the first examination (5.1 ± 3.1 years post-MI). Patients were clinically followed up for 7.6 ± 2.7 years. Group I patients were defined as those showing new development or deterioration in one of three grades of MR, and group II those without this criterion (MR grade acute 0.17 vs. 0.27, p = 0.7, and chronic 1.53 vs. 0.19, p < 0.0001). Patient characteristics were similar in respect of age, gender, size and location of infarction. However, group I patients had coronary artery disease with more vessels involved. With regard to echocardiographic parameters of significantly enlarged LV chamber size in group I vs. group II, the significant decrease in LV performance was more pronounced and occurred concomitant with a higher degree of symptomatic congestive heart failure and greater need for heart failure medications in group I. Mortality in group I patients was 39 versus 9% in group II patients (p = 0.0002), approximating an odds ratio of 6.4697 (95% confidence interval: 2.211–18.931). Conclusion: First of all, this retrospective study indicates that MR may be detected in patients after MI during a long-term follow-up most probably due to geometric distortions of LV remodelling resulting in a significantly higher mortality. Since this process is known to become irreversible at a certain point, serial echocardiography may help to detect MR in post-MI patients and thus pave the way for appropriate treatment.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Impact of mitral valve annuloplasty on mortality risk in patients with mitral regurgitation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

          This study was designed to assess effects of mitral valve annuloplasty (MVA) on mortality in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Mitral valve annuloplasty improves hemodynamics and symptoms in these patients, but effects on long-term mortality are not well established. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with significant MR and LV systolic dysfunction on echocardiography between 1995 and 2002. Cox regression analysis, including MVA as a time-dependent covariate and propensity scoring to adjust for differing probabilities of undergoing MVA, was used to identify predictors of death, LV assist device implantation, or United Network for Organ Sharing-1 heart transplantation. Of 682 patients identified, 419 were deemed surgical candidates; 126 underwent MVA. Propensity score derivation identified age, ejection fraction, and LV dimension to be associated with undergoing MVA. End points were reached in 120 (41%) non-MVA and 62 (49%) MVA patients. Increased risk of end point was associated with coronary artery disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 2.49), blood urea nitrogen (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.005 to 1.02), cancer (HR 2.77, 95% CI 1.45 to 5.30), and digoxin (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.39). Reduced risk was associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.95), beta-blockers (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.83), mean arterial pressure (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99), and serum sodium (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.96). Mitral valve annuloplasty did not predict clinical outcome. In this analysis, there is no clearly demonstrable mortality benefit conferred by MVA for significant MR with severe LV dysfunction. A prospective randomized control trial is warranted for further study of mortality with MVA in this population.
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            Prognostic significance of mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

            Mitral regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) frequently develop in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Ventricular volume overload that occurs in patients with MR and TR may lead to progression of myocardial dysfunction. We hypothesized that MR and TR would provide markers of risk in patients with LVSD. We reviewed clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic data on 1421 consecutive patients with LVSD (left ventricular ejection fraction < or =35%). Predictors of survival (freedom from death or United Network for Organ Sharing [UNOS]-1 transplantation) were identified in a multivariable analysis with a Cox proportional hazards analysis. The impact of MR and TR (none to mild, moderate, or severe) then was assessed separately with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. During the follow-up period (mean +/- SD, 365 +/-364 days), death occurred in 435 study subjects (31%) and UNOS-1 transplantation in 28 subjects (2%). Multivariable predictors of poor outcome included increasing MR and TR grade, cancer, coronary artery disease, and absence of an implantable cardiac defibrillator. Relative risk was 1.84 (95% CI 1.43-2.38) for severe MR and 1.55 (95% CI 1.14-2.11) for severe TR. Survival with Kaplan-Meier analysis related inversely to MR grade (none to mild 1004 +/-31 days, moderate 795 +/-34 days, severe 628 +/-47 days, P <.0001) and TR grade (none to mild 977 +/-28 days, moderate 737 +/-40 days, severe 658 +/-55 days, P =.0001). Patients with severe MR or TR represent high-risk subsets of patients with LVSD. Future study is warranted to determine whether pharmaceutical or surgical strategies to relieve MR and TR have a favorable impact on survival.
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              Heart failure and death after myocardial infarction in the community: the emerging role of mitral regurgitation.

              In case series, mitral regurgitation (MR) increased the risk of death after myocardial infarction (MI), yet the prevalence of MR, its incremental prognostic value over ejection fraction (EF), and its association with heart failure and death after MI in the community is not known. The prevalence of MR and its association with heart failure and death were examined among 1331 patients within a geographically defined MI incidence cohort between 1988 and 1998. Echocardiography was performed within 30 days after MI in 773 patients (58%), and MR was present in 50% of cases, mild in 38%, and moderate or severe in 12%. Among patients with MR, a murmur was inconsistently detected clinically. After 4.7+/-3.3 years of follow-up, 109 episodes of heart failure and 335 deaths occurred. There was a graded positive association between the presence and severity of MR and heart failure or death. Moderate or severe MR was associated with a large increase in the risk of heart failure (relative risk 3.44, 95% CI 1.74 to 6.82, P<0.001) and death (relative risk 1.55, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.22, P=0.019) among 30-day survivors independent of age, gender, EF, and Killip class. In the community, MR is frequent and often silent after MI. It carries information to predict heart failure or death among 30-day survivors independently of age, gender, EF, and Killip class. These findings, which are applicable to a large community-based MI cohort, suggest that the assessment of MR should be included in post-MI risk stratification.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                May 2007
                01 September 2006
                : 107
                : 4
                : 239-247
                Affiliations
                Second Medical Clinics, aFriedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, and bJohannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
                Article
                95500 Cardiology 2007;107:239–247
                10.1159/000095500
                16953109
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 34, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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