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      Molecular characterization of bacterial leaf streak resistance in hard winter wheat

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          Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens is one of the major bacterial diseases threatening wheat production in the United States Northern Great Plains (NGP) region. It is a sporadic but widespread wheat disease that can cause significant loss in grain yield and quality. Identification and characterization of genomic regions in wheat that confer resistance to BLS will help track resistance genes/QTLs in future wheat breeding. In this study, we evaluated a hard winter wheat association mapping panel (HWWAMP) containing 299 hard winter wheat lines from the US hard winter wheat growing region for their reactions to BLS. We observed a range of BLS responses among the lines, importantly, we identified ten genotypes that showed a resistant reaction both in greenhouse and field evaluation. ­Genome-wide association analysis with 15,990 SNPs was conducted using an exponentially compressed mixed linear model. Five genomic regions ( p < 0.001) that regulate the resistance to BLS were identified on chromosomes 1AL, 1BS, 3AL, 4AL, and 7AS. The QTLs Q.bls.sdsu-1AL, Q.bls.sdsu-1BS, Q.bls.sdsu-3AL, Q.bls.sdsu-4AL, and Q.bls.sdsu-7AS explain a total of 42% of the variation. In silico analysis of sequences in the candidate regions on chromosomes 1AL, 1BS, 3AL, 4AL, and 7AS identified 10, 25, 22, eight, and nine genes, respectively with known plant defense-related functions. Comparative analysis with rice showed two syntenic regions in rice that harbor genes for bacterial leaf streak resistance. The ten BLS resistant genotypes and SNP markers linked to the QTLs identified in our study could facilitate breeding for BLS resistance in winter wheat.

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          Pfam is a large collection of protein families and domains. Over the past 2 years the number of families in Pfam has doubled and now stands at 6190 (version 10.0). Methodology improvements for searching the Pfam collection locally as well as via the web are described. Other recent innovations include modelling of discontinuous domains allowing Pfam domain definitions to be closer to those found in structure databases. Pfam is available on the web in the UK (, the USA (, France ( and Sweden (
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            Plants cannot move to escape environmental challenges. Biotic stresses result from a battery of potential pathogens: fungi, bacteria, nematodes and insects intercept the photosynthate produced by plants, and viruses use replication machinery at the host's expense. Plants, in turn, have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to perceive such attacks, and to translate that perception into an adaptive response. Here, we review the current knowledge of recognition-dependent disease resistance in plants. We include a few crucial concepts to compare and contrast plant innate immunity with that more commonly associated with animals. There are appreciable differences, but also surprising parallels.
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              Use of unlinked genetic markers to detect population stratification in association studies.

              We examine the issue of population stratification in association-mapping studies. In case-control studies of association, population subdivision or recent admixture of populations can lead to spurious associations between a phenotype and unlinked candidate loci. Using a model of sampling from a structured population, we show that if population stratification exists, it can be detected by use of unlinked marker loci. We show that the case-control-study design, using unrelated control individuals, is a valid approach for association mapping, provided that marker loci unlinked to the candidate locus are included in the study, to test for stratification. We suggest guidelines as to the number of unlinked marker loci to use.

                Author and article information

                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                15 July 2019
                : 7
                Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science, South Dakota State University , Brookings, SD, USA
                ©2019 Ramakrishnan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funded by: USDA hatch projects
                Award ID: SD00H538-15
                Award ID: SD00H525-14
                Funded by: South Dakota Wheat Commission
                Award ID: 3X7262
                Funded by: Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grants
                Award ID: 2011-68002-30029
                Award ID: 2017-67007-25939
                Funded by: USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
                Funded by: South Dakota Agriculture Experimental Station (Brookings, SD, USA)
                This project was collectively funded by the USDA hatch projects SD00H538-15 and SD00H525-14, and South Dakota Wheat Commission 3X7262. The genotyping of the hard winter wheat association mapping panel was performed under the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grants 2011-68002-30029 (Triticeae-CAP) and 2017-67007-25939 (Wheat-CAP) from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. South Dakota Agriculture Experimental Station (Brookings, SD, USA) also provided the resources/field space to conduct the experiments. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Agricultural Science
                Plant Science


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