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      The association of diet, gut microbiota and colorectal cancer: what we eat may imply what we get

      review-article
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      Protein & Cell
      Higher Education Press
      colorectal cancer, gut microbiota, fiber, protein, fat, metabolites

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          Abstract

          Despite the success of colonoscopy screening and recent advances in cancer treatment, colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains one of the most commonly diagnosed and deadly cancers, with a significantly increased incidence in developing countries where people are adapting to Western lifestyle. Diet has an important impact on risk of CRC. Multiple epidemiological studies have suggested that excessive animal protein and fat intake, especially red meat and processed meat, could increase the risk of developing CRC while fiber could protect against colorectal tumorigenesis. Mechanisms have been investigated by animal studies. Diet could re-shape the community structure of gut microbiota and influence its function by modulating the production of metabolites. Butyrate, one of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which act as a favorable source for colonocytes, could protect colonic epithelial cells from tumorigenesis via anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic properties through cell metabolism, microbiota homeostasis, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory and genetic/epigenetic regulation ways. In contrast, protein fermentation and bile acid deconjugation, which cause damage to colonic cells through proinflammatory and proneoplastic ways, lead to increased risk of developing CRC. In conclusion, a balanced diet with an increased abundance of fiber should be adopted to reduce the risk and prevent CRC.

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          Most cited references115

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          Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species.

          E BERGMAN (1990)
          The VFA, also known as short-chain fatty acids, are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by microbial fermentation of carbohydrates and endogenous substrates, such as mucus. This can be of great advantage to the animal, since no digestive enzymes exist for breaking down cellulose or other complex carbohydrates. The VFA are produced in the largest amounts in herbivorous animal species and especially in the forestomach of ruminants. The VFA, however, also are produced in the lower digestive tract of humans and all animal species, and intestinal fermentation resembles that occurring in the rumen. The principal VFA in either the rumen or large intestine are acetate, propionate, and butyrate and are produced in a ratio varying from approximately 75:15:10 to 40:40:20. Absorption of VFA at their site of production is rapid, and large quantities are metabolized by the ruminal or large intestinal epithelium before reaching the portal blood. Most of the butyrate is converted to ketone bodies or CO2 by the epithelial cells, and nearly all of the remainder is removed by the liver. Propionate is similarly removed by the liver but is largely converted to glucose. Although species differences exist, acetate is used principally by peripheral tissues, especially fat and muscle. Considerable energy is obtained from VFA in herbivorous species, and far more research has been conducted on ruminants than on other species. Significant VFA, however, are now known to be produced in omnivorous species, such as pigs and humans. Current estimates are that VFA contribute approximately 70% to the caloric requirements of ruminants, such as sheep and cattle, approximately 10% for humans, and approximately 20-30% for several other omnivorous or herbivorous animals. The amount of fiber in the diet undoubtedly affects the amount of VFA produced, and thus the contribution of VFA to the energy needs of the body could become considerably greater as the dietary fiber increases. Pigs and some species of monkey most closely resemble humans, and current research should be directed toward examining the fermentation processes and VFA metabolism in those species. In addition to the energetic or nutritional contributions of VFA to the body, the VFA may indirectly influence cholesterol synthesis and even help regulate insulin or glucagon secretion. In addition, VFA production and absorption have a very significant effect on epithelial cell growth, blood flow, and the normal secretory and absorptive functions of the large intestine, cecum, and rumen. The absorption of VFA and sodium, for example, seem to be interdependent, and release of bicarbonate usually occurs during VFA absorption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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            Diet, microbiota, and microbial metabolites in colon cancer risk in rural Africans and African Americans.

            Epidemiologic studies have suggested that most cases of sporadic colon cancer can be attributed to diet. The recognition that colonic microbiota have a major influence on colonic health suggests that they might mediate colonic carcinogenesis. To examine the hypothesis that the influence of diet on colon cancer risk is mediated by the microbiota through their metabolites, we measured differences in colonic microbes and their metabolites in African Americans with a high risk and in rural native Africans with a low risk of colon cancer. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 12 healthy African Americans aged 50-65 y and from 12 age- and sex-matched native Africans. Microbiomes were analyzed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing together with quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the major fermentative, butyrate-producing, and bile acid-deconjugating bacteria. Fecal short-chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography and bile acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Microbial composition was fundamentally different, with a predominance of Prevotella in native Africans (enterotype 2) and of Bacteroides in African Americans (enterotype 1). Total bacteria and major butyrate-producing groups were significantly more abundant in fecal samples from native Africans. Microbial genes encoding for secondary bile acid production were more abundant in African Americans, whereas those encoding for methanogenesis and hydrogen sulfide production were higher in native Africans. Fecal secondary bile acid concentrations were higher in African Americans, whereas short-chain fatty acids were higher in native Africans. Our results support the hypothesis that colon cancer risk is influenced by the balance between microbial production of health-promoting metabolites such as butyrate and potentially carcinogenic metabolites such as secondary bile acids.
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              Compositional and functional features of the gastrointestinal microbiome and their effects on human health.

              The human gastrointestinal tract contains distinct microbial communities that differ in composition and function based on their location, as well as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and diet of their host. We describe the bacterial taxa present in different locations of the GI tract, and their specific metabolic features. The distinct features of these specific microbial communities might affect human health and disease. Several bacterial taxa and metabolic modules (biochemical functions) have been associated with human health and the absence of disease. Core features of the healthy microbiome might be defined and targeted to prevent disease and optimize human health. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (852) 37636099 , junyu@cuhk.edu.hk
                Journal
                Protein Cell
                Protein Cell
                Protein & Cell
                Higher Education Press (Beijing )
                1674-800X
                1674-8018
                30 April 2018
                30 April 2018
                May 2018
                : 9
                : 5
                : 474-487
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0482, GRID grid.10784.3a, State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute, , The Chinese University of Hong Kong, ; Sha Tin, Hong Kong
                Article
                543
                10.1007/s13238-018-0543-6
                5960467
                29713943
                6e0c8d81-2e4e-48c1-a4be-a91802a5e0db
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                Review
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                © HEP and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

                colorectal cancer,gut microbiota,fiber,protein,fat,metabolites
                colorectal cancer, gut microbiota, fiber, protein, fat, metabolites

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