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      Readers of poly(ADP-ribose): designed to be fit for purpose

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      Nucleic Acids Research
      Oxford University Press

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          Abstract

          Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate many aspects of protein function and are indispensable for the spatio-temporal regulation of cellular processes. The proteome-wide identification of PTM targets has made significant progress in recent years, as has the characterization of their writers, readers, modifiers and erasers. One of the most elusive PTMs is poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a nucleic acid-like PTM involved in chromatin dynamics, genome stability maintenance, transcription, cell metabolism and development. In this article, we provide an overview on our current understanding of the writers of this modification and their targets, as well as the enzymes that degrade and thereby modify and erase poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Since many cellular functions of PARylation are exerted through dynamic interactions of PAR-binding proteins with PAR, we discuss the readers of this modification and provide a synthesis of recent findings, which suggest that multiple structurally highly diverse reader modules, ranging from completely folded PAR-binding domains to intrinsically disordered sequence stretches, evolved as PAR effectors to carry out specific cellular functions.

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          Most cited references89

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          Tankyrase inhibition stabilizes axin and antagonizes Wnt signalling.

          The stability of the Wnt pathway transcription factor beta-catenin is tightly regulated by the multi-subunit destruction complex. Deregulated Wnt pathway activity has been implicated in many cancers, making this pathway an attractive target for anticancer therapies. However, the development of targeted Wnt pathway inhibitors has been hampered by the limited number of pathway components that are amenable to small molecule inhibition. Here, we used a chemical genetic screen to identify a small molecule, XAV939, which selectively inhibits beta-catenin-mediated transcription. XAV939 stimulates beta-catenin degradation by stabilizing axin, the concentration-limiting component of the destruction complex. Using a quantitative chemical proteomic approach, we discovered that XAV939 stabilizes axin by inhibiting the poly-ADP-ribosylating enzymes tankyrase 1 and tankyrase 2. Both tankyrase isoforms interact with a highly conserved domain of axin and stimulate its degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Thus, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the regulation of axin protein homeostasis and presents new avenues for targeted Wnt pathway therapies.
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            Poly(ADP-ribose): novel functions for an old molecule.

            The addition to proteins of the negatively charged polymer of ADP-ribose (PAR), which is synthesized by PAR polymerases (PARPs) from NAD(+), is a unique post-translational modification. It regulates not only cell survival and cell-death programmes, but also an increasing number of other biological functions with which novel members of the PARP family have been associated. These functions include transcriptional regulation, telomere cohesion and mitotic spindle formation during cell division, intracellular trafficking and energy metabolism.
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              Cell-free formation of RNA granules: bound RNAs identify features and components of cellular assemblies.

              Cellular granules lacking boundary membranes harbor RNAs and their associated proteins and play diverse roles controlling the timing and location of protein synthesis. Formation of such granules was emulated by treatment of mouse brain extracts and human cell lysates with a biotinylated isoxazole (b-isox) chemical. Deep sequencing of the associated RNAs revealed an enrichment for mRNAs known to be recruited to neuronal granules used for dendritic transport and localized translation at synapses. Precipitated mRNAs contain extended 3' UTR sequences and an enrichment in binding sites for known granule-associated proteins. Hydrogels composed of the low complexity (LC) sequence domain of FUS recruited and retained the same mRNAs as were selectively precipitated by the b-isox chemical. Phosphorylation of the LC domain of FUS prevented hydrogel retention, offering a conceptual means of dynamic, signal-dependent control of RNA granule assembly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                18 February 2016
                15 December 2015
                15 December 2015
                : 44
                : 3
                : 993-1006
                Affiliations
                Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
                Author notes
                [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +41 44 63 55 475; Fax: +41 44 635 54 68; Email: matthias.altmeyer@ 123456uzh.ch
                Article
                10.1093/nar/gkv1383
                4756826
                26673700
                6e17d6ae-9662-4229-b03e-d41f8274e837
                © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oup.com

                History
                : 26 November 2015
                : 25 November 2015
                : 29 October 2015
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Categories
                Survey and Summary
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                18 February 2016

                Genetics
                Genetics

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