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      Influence of Maternal Habitat on Salinity Tolerance of Zygophyllum coccineum with Regard to Seed Germination and Growth Parameters

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          Abstract

          Zygophyllum coccineum is a facultative halophyte widely distributed in desert wadis and coastal areas in Egypt. Here, we investigated the influences of maternal habitat on tolerance to salt stress during germination and seedling growth under salinity (0, 100, 200, 400 mM NaCl) of three populations of Z. coccineum from a saline habitat (Manzala coast) and non-saline habitats (Wadi Houf and Wadi Asyuti). In all populations, seed germination started within two days in distilled water but germination indices were reduced significantly with salt level increase. Germination percentage was not significantly greater for seeds from non-saline habitats than for those from the saline habitat under moderate salinity (100, 200 mM NaCl), but only seeds from the saline habitat were able to germinate under high salt stress (400 mM NaCl). Germination recovery was greater for seeds from the saline habitat compared to non-saline populations. At the seedling level, the Manzala population showed the lowest inhibition of shoot length and leaf area under salinity (200 and 400 mM NaCl) compared to non-saline habitats. In the same context, the Manzala population had the maximum chlorophyll a content, superoxide dismutase and esterase activities under salinity compared to non-saline populations, but salinity had a non-significant effect on chlorophyll b between the three populations. Carotenoids were enhanced with the increase of salt levels in all populations. These results suggest the salt tolerance of Manzala population is derived from maternal salinity and adaptive plasticity of this species may play an important role in the wide distribution of Z. coccineum.

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            NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis

            For the past twenty five years the NIH family of imaging software, NIH Image and ImageJ have been pioneers as open tools for scientific image analysis. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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              Cleavage of Structural Proteins during the Assembly of the Head of Bacteriophage T4

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                plants
                Plants
                MDPI
                2223-7747
                06 November 2020
                November 2020
                : 9
                : 11
                : 1504
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Botany & Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Assiut), Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt; amkasem@ 123456azhar.edu.eg
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia; a.gobouri@ 123456tu.edu.sa
                [3 ]Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University Ismailia, Ismailia 41522, Egypt; amr.elkelish@ 123456science.suez.edu.eg
                [4 ]Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia; e.azab@ 123456tu.edu.sa
                [5 ]Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sayedmohamed@ 123456azhar.edu.eg ; Tel.: +20-100-854-7019
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9183-2934
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5292-8818
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1683-8436
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1122-3942
                Article
                plants-09-01504
                10.3390/plants9111504
                7694771
                33172127
                6e29a643-890c-45fb-8ca0-a8c9daace82f
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 15 September 2020
                : 03 November 2020
                Categories
                Article

                seed germination,halophytes,maternal habitats,zygophyllum coccineum,superoxide dismutase,esterase

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