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      Minimal Model: Perspective from 2005

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Disposition index, Modelling, Insulin resistance, Insulin secretion, Genetics

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          Abstract

          The minimal model was proposed over 25 years ago. Despite (or because of) its simplicity it continues to be used today – both as a clinical tool and an approach to understanding the composite effects of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity on glucose tolerance and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The original assumptions of the model have led to an understanding of the kinetics of insulin in vivo, as well as the relative importance of β-cell compensatory failure in the pathogenesis of diabetes. The disposition index (DI), a parameter emerging from the model, represents the ability of the pancreatic islets to compensate for insulin resistance. There is evidence that a locus on chromosome 11 codes for the DI, which has a significant heritability and can predict type 2 diabetes better than any known genetic locus. Even today, the model continues to be a subject of scientific discovery and discourse.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The HER-2 receptor and breast cancer: ten years of targeted anti-HER-2 therapy and personalized medicine.

          The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) oncogene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that has evolved as a major classifier of invasive breast cancer and target of therapy for the disease. The validation of the general prognostic significance of HER-2 gene amplification and protein overexpression in the absence of anti-HER-2 targeted therapy is discussed in a study of 107 published studies involving 39,730 patients, which produced an overall HER-2-positive rate of 22.2% and a mean relative risk for overall survival (OS) of 2.74. The issue of HER-2 status in primary versus metastatic breast cancer is considered along with a section on the features of metastatic HER-2-positive disease. The major marketed slide-based HER-2 testing approaches, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and chromogenic in situ hybridization, are presented and contrasted in detail against the background of the published American Society of Clinical Oncology-College of American Pathologists guidelines for HER-2 testing. Testing issues, such as the impact of chromosome 17 polysomy and local versus central HER-2 testing, are also discussed. Emerging novel HER-2 testing techniques, including mRNA-based testing by real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA microarray methods, HER-2 receptor dimerization, phosphorylated HER-2 receptors, and HER-2 status in circulating tumor cells, are also considered. A series of biomarkers potentially associated with resistance to trastuzumab is discussed with emphasis on the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten/Akt and insulin-like growth factor receptor pathways. The efficacy results for the more recently approved small molecule HER-1/HER-2 kinase inhibitor lapatinib are also presented along with a more limited review of markers of resistance for this agent. Additional topics in this section include combinations of both anti-HER-2 targeted therapies together as well as with novel agents including bevacizumab, everolimus, and tenespimycin. A series of novel HER-2-targeting agents is also presented, including pertuzumab, ertumaxomab, HER-2 vaccines, and recently discovered tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Biomarkers predictive of HER-2 targeted therapy toxicity are included, and the review concludes with a consideration of HER-2 status in the prediction of response to non-HER-2 targeted treatments including hormonal therapy, anthracyclines, and taxanes.
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            MINMOD Millennium: a computer program to calculate glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

            The Bergman Minimal Model enables estimation of two key indices of glucose/insulin dynamics: glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity. In this paper we describe MINMOD Millennium, the latest Windows-based version of minimal model software. Extensive beta testing of MINMOD Millennium has shown that it is user-friendly, fully automatic, fast, accurate, reproducible, repeatable, and highly concordant with past versions of MINMOD. It has a simple interface, a comprehensive help system, an input file editor, a file converter, an intelligent processing kernel, and a file exporter. It provides publication-quality charts of glucose and insulin and a table of all minimal model parameters and their error estimates. In contrast to earlier versions of MINMOD and some other minimal model programs, Millennium provides identified estimates of insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness for almost every subject.
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              MINMOD: a computer program to calculate insulin sensitivity and pancreatic responsivity from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

              Insulin sensitivity and pancreatic responsivity are the two main factors controlling glucose tolerance. We have proposed a method for measuring these two factors, using computer analysis of a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). This 'minimal modelling approach' fits two mathematical models with FSIGT glucose and insulin data: one of glucose disappearance and one of insulin kinetics. MINMOD is the computer program which identifies the model parameters for each individual. A nonlinear least squares estimation technique is used, employing a gradient-type of estimation algorithm, and the first derivatives (not known analytically) are computed according to the 'sensitivity approach'. The program yields the parameter estimates and the precision of their estimation. From the model parameters, it is possible to extract four indices: SG, the ability of glucose per se to enhance its own disappearance at basal insulin, SI, the tissue insulin sensitivity index, phi 1, first phase pancreatic responsivity, and phi 2, second phase pancreatic responsivity. These four characteristic parameters have been shown to represent an integrated metabolic portrait of a single individual.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8063-2
                978-3-318-01309-2
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                February 2006
                27 January 2006
                : 64
                : Suppl 3
                : 8-15
                Affiliations
                University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
                Article
                89312 Horm Res 2005;64:8–15
                10.1159/000089312
                16439839
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 24, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Insulin Sensitivity: Methods

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