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      Adsorción de metales pesados en aguas residuales usando materiales de origen biológico Translated title: Adsorption of heavy metals in waste water using biological materials

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          Abstract

          La bioadsorción es un proceso que permite la captación activa o pasiva de iones metálicos, debido a la propiedad que diversas biomasas vivas o muertas poseen para enlazar y acumular este tipo de contaminantes por diferentes mecanismos. La aplicación de materiales de bajo costo obtenidos a partir de diferentes biomasas provenientes de la flora microbiana, algas y residuos agroindustriales ha sido investigada para reemplazar el uso de métodos convencionales en la remoción de contaminantes, tales como los metales pesados. Entre los metales de mayor impacto al ambiente por su alta toxicidad y difícil eliminación se encuentran el cromo, níquel, cadmio, plomo y mercurio. En el presente trabajo se estudian las generalidades de la adsorción como proceso alternativo para la remoción de contaminantes en solución y las biomasas comúnmente usadas en estos procesos, además de algunas de las modificaciones realizadas para la mejora de la eficiencia de adsorción de las mismas. Se concluye que el uso de la adsorción en la remoción de contaminantes en solución acuosa mediante el uso de biomasa residual es aplicable a estos procesos de descontaminación evitando problemas subsecuentes como la generación de lodos químicos, y generando un uso alternativo a materiales considerados como desechos. Se identifica además que factores como el pH de la solución, tamaño de partícula, temperatura y la concentración del metal influyen en el proceso.

          Translated abstract

          Biosorption is a process that allows active or passive uptake of metal ions due to the property that different living or dead biomass have to bind and accumulate these pollutants by different mechanisms. The application of low-cost materials obtained from different biomass from microbial flora, agro-industrial waste and algae has been investigated to replace the use of conventional methods for the removal of contaminants such as heavy metals. Some of the metals of greatest impact to the environment due to its high toxicity and difficult to remove are chromium, nickel, cadmium, lead, and mercury. In this paper, an overview of adsorption as an alternative process for the removal of contaminants in solution and biomass commonly used in these processes, as well as some of the modifications made to improve the efficiency of adsorption of these materials is presented. It was concluded that the use of adsorption in the removal of pollutants in aqueous solution using waste biomass is applicable to these decontamination processes avoiding subsequent problems such as the generation of chemical sludge, and generating an alternative to use materials considered as waste. It is further identified that such factors as the pH of the solution, particle size, temperature, and concentration of metal effect on the process.

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          Most cited references 137

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          Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review.

          In this article, the technical feasibility of various low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal removal from contaminated water has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon, researchers have worked on inexpensive materials, such as chitosan, zeolites, and other adsorbents, which have high adsorption capacity and are locally available. The results of their removal performance are compared to that of activated carbon and are presented in this study. It is evident from our literature survey of about 100 papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain metal ions as compared to activated carbon. Adsorbents that stand out for high adsorption capacities are chitosan (815, 273, 250 mg/g of Hg(2+), Cr(6+), and Cd(2+), respectively), zeolites (175 and 137 mg/g of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively), waste slurry (1030, 560, 540 mg/g of Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Cr(6+), respectively), and lignin (1865 mg/g of Pb(2+)). These adsorbents are suitable for inorganic effluent treatment containing the metal ions mentioned previously. It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the adsorbents presented in this paper vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the extent of chemical modifications, and the concentration of adsorbate.
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            Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment

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              New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater

               M.A. Barakat (2011)
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Cartagena orgnameUniversidad de Cartagena orgdiv1Facultad de Ingeniería Colombia ctejadat@ 123456unicartagena.edu.co
                Cartagena orgnameUniversidad de Cartagena orgdiv1Facultad de Ingeniería Colombia angelvillabona@ 123456yahoo.es
                Cartagena orgnameUniversidad de Cartagena orgdiv1Grupo IDAB del programa de Ingeniería Química Colombia luz.garces.jaraba@ 123456gmail.com
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                teclo
                TecnoLógicas
                TecnoL.
                Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano - ITM (Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia )
                0123-7799
                2256-5337
                January 2015
                : 18
                : 34
                : 109-123
                S0123-77992015000100010

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 97, Pages: 15
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                Product Information: SciELO Colombia
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