Over the more than thirty-year period of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic, many data have been accumulated indicating that HIV infection predisposes one to the development of mental pathologies. It has been proven that cognitive disorders in HIV-positive individuals are the result of the direct exposure of the virus to central nervous system (CNS) cells. The use of antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced the number of cases of mental disorders among people infected with HIV. However, the incidence of moderate to mild cognitive impairment at all stages of HIV infection is still quite high. This review describes the most common forms of mental pathology that occur in people living with HIV and presents the current concepts on the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and its viral proteins on the cells of the CNS and the CNS’s functions. This review also provides the current state of knowledge on the impact of the antiretroviral therapy on the development of mental pathologies in people living with HIV, as well as current knowledge on the interactions between antiretroviral and psychotropic drugs that occur under their simultaneous administration.