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      Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning.

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      Psychological Review

      American Psychological Association (APA)

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          Abstract

          An evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with 4 characteristics is proposed. (a) The fear module is preferentially activated in aversive contexts by stimuli that are fear relevant in an evolutionary perspective. (b) Its activation to such stimuli is automatic. (c) It is relatively impenetrable to cognitive control. (d) It originates in a dedicated neural circuitry, centered on the amygdala. Evidence supporting these propositions is reviewed from conditioning studies, both in humans and in monkeys; illusory correlation studies; studies using unreportable stimuli; and studies from animal neuroscience. The fear module is assumed to mediate an emotional level of fear learning that is relatively independent and dissociable from cognitive learning of stimulus relationships.

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          Most cited references 198

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          A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.

          Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is the primary experimental model for investigating the synaptic basis of learning and memory in vertebrates. The best understood form of long-term potentiation is induced by the activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. This subtype of glutamate receptor endows long-term potentiation with Hebbian characteristics, and allows electrical events at the postsynaptic membrane to be transduced into chemical signals which, in turn, are thought to activate both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms to generate a persistent increase in synaptic strength.
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            Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a general theory.

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              Arms Races between and within Species

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychological Review
                Psychological Review
                American Psychological Association (APA)
                1939-1471
                0033-295X
                2001
                2001
                : 108
                : 3
                : 483-522
                Article
                10.1037/0033-295X.108.3.483
                11488376
                © 2001

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