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      A global meta-analysis of ITS rDNA sequences from material belonging to the genus Ganoderma (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) including new data from selected taxa

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          Abstract

          Ganoderma P. Karst. is a cosmopolitan genus of white-rot fungi which comprises species with highly-prized pharmaceutical properties, valuable biotechnological applications and of significant phytopathological interest. However, the status of the taxonomy within the genus is still highly controversial and ambiguous despite the progress made through molecular approaches. A metadata analysis of 3908 nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences obtained from GenBank/ENA/DDBJ and UNITE was performed by targeting sequences annotated as Ganoderma , but also sequences from environmental samples and from material examined for the first time. Ganoderma taxa segregated into five main lineages (Clades A to E). Clade A corresponds to the core of laccate species and includes G. shanxiense and three major well-supported clusters: Cluster A.1 (‘ G. lucidum sensu lato’) consists of taxa from Eurasia and North America, Cluster A.2 of material with worldwide occurrence including G. resinaceum and Cluster A.3 is composed of species originating from all continents except Europe and comprises G. lingzhi . Clade B includes G. applanatum and allied species with a Holarctic distribution. Clade C comprises taxa from Asia and Africa only. Clade D consists of laccate taxa with tropical/subtropical occurrence, while clade E harbours the highest number of non-laccate species with a cosmopolitan distribution. The 92 Ganoderma -associated names, initially used for sequences labelling, correspond to at least 80 taxa. Amongst them, 21 constitute putatively new phylospecies after our application of criteria relevant to the robustness/support of the terminal clades, intra- and interspecific genetic divergence and available biogeographic data. Moreover, several other groups or individual sequences seem to represent distinct taxonomic entities and merit further investigation. A particularly large number of the public sequences was revealed to be insufficiently and/or incorrectly identified, for example, 87% and 78% of entries labelled as G. australe and G. lucidum , respectively. In general, ITS demonstrated high efficacy in resolving relationships amongst most of the Ganoderma taxa; however, it was not equally useful at elucidating species barriers across the entire genus and such cases are outlined. Furthermore, we draw conclusions on biogeography by evaluating species occurrence on a global scale in conjunction with phylogenetic structure/patterns. The sequence variability assessed in ITS spacers could be further exploited for diagnostic purposes.

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          MAFFT Multiple Sequence Alignment Software Version 7: Improvements in Performance and Usability

          We report a major update of the MAFFT multiple sequence alignment program. This version has several new features, including options for adding unaligned sequences into an existing alignment, adjustment of direction in nucleotide alignment, constrained alignment and parallel processing, which were implemented after the previous major update. This report shows actual examples to explain how these features work, alone and in combination. Some examples incorrectly aligned by MAFFT are also shown to clarify its limitations. We discuss how to avoid misalignments, and our ongoing efforts to overcome such limitations.
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            RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

            Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

              The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2020
                01 December 2020
                : 75
                : 71-143
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Agricultural University of Athens, Laboratory of General and Agricultural Microbiology, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
                [2 ] National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, Panepistemiopolis, Athens 15701, Greece
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Georgios I. Zervakis ( zervakis@ 123456aua.gr )

                Academic editor: M.P. Martín

                Article
                59872
                10.3897/mycokeys.75.59872
                7723883
                33304123
                Vassiliki Fryssouli, Georgios I. Zervakis, Elias Polemis, Milton A. Typas

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Basidiomycota
                Polyporales
                Phylogeny
                World

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