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Influencia de factores perinatales en la pesquisa neonatal de hiperplasia adrenal congénita en Ciudad de La Habana y La Habana Translated title: Influence of perinatal factors on the neonatal screening of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Ciudad de La Habana

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      Abstract

      Introducción: los costos económicos y psicosociales asociados con los resultados falsos positivos de la pesquisa neonatal de hiperplasia adrenal congénita son altos. Objetivos: identificar los factores perinatales que intervienen en la elevación y en el tiempo de normalización de los valores de 17 hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP), en pacientes no afectados por hiperplasia adrenal congénita. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal retrospectivo en 1 114 pacientes procedentes de Ciudad de La Habana y La Habana, con resultados falsos positivos en la pesquisa, desde enero/2007 hasta junio/2010. Se identificaron las diferencias en la frecuencia de los factores perinatales reconocidos en este grupo con una muestra de población general, y otra integrada por enfermos de hiperplasia adrenal congénita. Resultados: de los pacientes falsos positivos, el 50,7 % pertenecía al sexo masculino y 49,3 % al femenino. El 54,7 % nació por cesárea, y el 82 % no presentó sufrimiento fetal agudo, aquellos con menor edad gestacional y peso al nacer más bajo presentaron niveles medios de 17OHP más elevados. El 68,1 % normalizó la 17OHP al cumplir un mes de vida, independientemente del tipo de parto y de la presencia de sufrimiento fetal agudo; pero la edad gestacional y el peso al nacer tuvieron correlación inversa con la persistencia de su elevación. Predominó el parto eutócico en los neonatos enfermos y normales, y la cesárea en los falsos positivos. La media de la edad gestacional y del peso al nacer fue significativamente menor en los casos en el primer grupo, comparada con la de los grupos restantes. Conclusiones: la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer tuvieron una influencia significativa sobre la elevación y la persistencia de los valores de 17OHP, no así el tipo de parto y el sufrimiento fetal agudo.

      Translated abstract

      Introduction: the psychosocial and economic costs associated with the false-positive results of the neonatal screening of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are high. Objectives: to identify the perinatal factors to get involved in the rise and in the normalization time of values of 17 hydroprogesterone (17OHP) in patients not involved by a congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Methods: a retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted in 1 114 patients from Ciudad de La Habana and La Habana with false-positive results according to screening from January, 2007 to June, 2010. Authors identified the differences in frequency of perinatal factors recognized in this group with a sample of general population, and other including congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients. Results: from the false-positive patients, the 50.7 % was of male sex and the 49.3 % to the female one. The 54.7 % was born by cesarean section and the 82 % has not acute fetal suffering, those small for the gestational age and lower birth weight had mean levels of 17OHP higher. The 68.1 % normalized the OHP at one month of life, independently the type of labor and of the presence of acute fetal suffering but the gestational age and the birth weight had an inverse correlation with the persistence of its rise. There was predominance of eutocia labor in the sick and normal neonates and the cesarean section in the false-positive ones. The mean of gestational age and of the birth weight was significantly minor in the cases of the first group, compared with the remaining groups. Conclusions: the prematurity and the low birth weight had a significant influence on the rise and the persistence of values of 17OHP, but not the type of labor and the acute fetal suffering.

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      Most cited references 53

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      Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

      We developed clinical practice guidelines for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), ten additional clinicians experienced in treating CAH, a methodologist, and a medical writer. Additional experts were also consulted. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions. The guidelines were reviewed and approved sequentially by The Endocrine Society's CGS and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. We recommend universal newborn screening for severe steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency followed by confirmatory tests. We recommend that prenatal treatment of CAH continue to be regarded as experimental. The diagnosis rests on clinical and hormonal data; genotyping is reserved for equivocal cases and genetic counseling. Glucocorticoid dosage should be minimized to avoid iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Mineralocorticoids and, in infants, supplemental sodium are recommended in classic CAH patients. We recommend against the routine use of experimental therapies to promote growth and delay puberty; we suggest patients avoid adrenalectomy. Surgical guidelines emphasize early single-stage genital repair for severely virilized girls, performed by experienced surgeons. Clinicians should consider patients' quality of life, consulting mental health professionals as appropriate. At the transition to adulthood, we recommend monitoring for potential complications of CAH. Finally, we recommend judicious use of medication during pregnancy and in symptomatic patients with nonclassic CAH.
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        Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

         P C White,  P Speiser (2000)
        More than 90% of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, the inherited inability to synthesize cortisol) are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Females with severe, classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency are exposed to excess androgens prenatally and are born with virilized external genitalia. Most patients cannot synthesize sufficient aldosterone to maintain sodium balance and may develop potentially fatal "salt wasting" crises if not treated. The disease is caused by mutations in the CYP21 gene encoding the steroid 21-hydroxylase enzyme. More than 90% of these mutations result from intergenic recombinations between CYP21 and the closely linked CYP21P pseudogene. Approximately 20% are gene deletions due to unequal crossing over during meiosis, whereas the remainder are gene conversions--transfers to CYP21 of deleterious mutations normally present in CYP21P. The degree to which each mutation compromises enzymatic activity is strongly correlated with the clinical severity of the disease in patients carrying it. Prenatal diagnosis by direct mutation detection permits prenatal treatment of affected females to minimize genital virilization. Neonatal screening by hormonal methods identifies affected children before salt wasting crises develop, reducing mortality from this condition. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement are the mainstays of treatment, but more rational dosing and additional therapies are being developed.
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          Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

           T. C. White (2009)
          Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency occurs in 1:16,000-1:20,000 births. If not promptly diagnosed and treated, CAH can cause death in early infancy from shock, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Affected girls usually have ambiguous genitalia but boys appear normal; therefore, newborn babies are commonly screened for CAH in the US and many other countries. By identifying babies with severe, salt-wasting CAH before they develop adrenal crises, screening reduces morbidity and mortality, particularly among affected boys. Diagnosis is based on elevated levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, the preferred substrate for steroid 21-hydroxylase. Initial testing usually involves dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay that has a low positive predictive value (about 1%), which leads to many follow-up evaluations that have negative results. The positive predictive value might be improved by second-tier screening using DNA-based methods or liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry, but these methods are not widely adopted. Cost estimates for such screening range from US$20,000 to $300,000 per life-year saved. In babies with markedly abnormal screen results, levels of serum electrolytes and 17-hydroxyprogesterone should be immediately determined, but the most reliable way to diagnose CAH is measurement of levels of steroid precursors after stimulation with cosyntropin.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología Cuba
            [2 ] Centro de Inmunoensayo Cuba
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            end
            Revista Cubana de Endocrinología
            Rev Cubana Endocrinol
            Editorial Ciencias Médicas (Ciudad de la Habana )
            1561-2953
            April 2012
            : 23
            : 1
            : 1-18
            S1561-29532012000100001

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Cuba
            Categories
            ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM

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