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      Intra and Inter-rater Reliability between Ultrasound Imaging and Caliper Measures to determine Spring Ligament Dimensions in Cadavers

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          Abstract

          The purpose was to evaluate intra and inter-rater reliability, repeatability and absolute accuracy between ultrasound imaging (US) and caliper measures to determine Spring ligament (SL) dimensions in cadavers. SLs were identified from 62 human feet from formaldehyde-embalmed cadavers. Intra and inter-observer reliability, repeatability and absolute accuracy of SL width, thickness and length between US and caliper measurements were determined at intra and inter-session by intraclass correlation coefficients, Pearson´s correlation coefficients, Student t tests, standard errors of measurement, minimum detectable changes, values of normality, 95% limits of agreement, and Bland-Altman plots. Excellent inter-session and inter-rater reliability, adequate absolute accuracy, almost perfect agreement and strong correlations were shown for caliper, US and their comparison for all SL dimensions. US measurements presented higher absolute accuracy than caliper measures for SL length and thickness dimensions, while caliper displayed greater absolute accuracy for SL width dimensions. Good repeatability ( P > 0.05) was shown for all SL dimensions by US, caliper and their comparison, except for SL width dimension measured with US ( P = 0.019). Both US and caliper could be recommended for all SL dimensions evaluation due to their excellent reliability and absolute accuracy in cadavers, although width dimensions should be considered with caution due to US repeatability differences.

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          Most cited references 24

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          STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSING AGREEMENT BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF CLINICAL MEASUREMENT

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            STARD 2015: an updated list of essential items for reporting diagnostic accuracy studies

            Incomplete reporting has been identified as a major source of avoidable waste in biomedical research. Essential information is often not provided in study reports, impeding the identification, critical appraisal, and replication of studies. To improve the quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies, the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement was developed. Here we present STARD 2015, an updated list of 30 essential items that should be included in every report of a diagnostic accuracy study. This update incorporates recent evidence about sources of bias and variability in diagnostic accuracy and is intended to facilitate the use of STARD. As such, STARD 2015 may help to improve completeness and transparency in reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies.
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              Computing Inter-Rater Reliability for Observational Data: An Overview and Tutorial.

              Many research designs require the assessment of inter-rater reliability (IRR) to demonstrate consistency among observational ratings provided by multiple coders. However, many studies use incorrect statistical procedures, fail to fully report the information necessary to interpret their results, or do not address how IRR affects the power of their subsequent analyses for hypothesis testing. This paper provides an overview of methodological issues related to the assessment of IRR with a focus on study design, selection of appropriate statistics, and the computation, interpretation, and reporting of some commonly-used IRR statistics. Computational examples include SPSS and R syntax for computing Cohen's kappa and intra-class correlations to assess IRR.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                cecalvo19@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                15 October 2019
                15 October 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2176 8535, GRID grid.8073.c, Research, Health and Podiatry Unit. Department of Health Sciences, , Faculty of Nursing and Podiatry. Universidade da Coruña, ; Ferrol, Spain
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000119412521, GRID grid.8393.1, University Center of Plasencia. Universidad de Extremadura, ; Badajoz, Spain
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 7667, GRID grid.4795.f, Facultad de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología, , Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ; Madrid, Spain
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2206 5938, GRID grid.28479.30, Faculty of Health Sciences, , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, ; Móstoles, Spain
                Article
                51384
                10.1038/s41598-019-51384-6
                6794374
                31616040
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © The Author(s) 2019

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                ligaments, muscle

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