+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Evolution of Left Atrial Systolic and Diastolic Functions in Different Stages of Hypertension: Distinct Effects of Blood Pressure Control

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Background: To evaluate the left atrial (LA) volume, and LA systolic (contractile) and diastolic (expansion) functions in different stages of hypertension with or without atrial fibrillation (AF), as well as the effects of good blood pressure control. Methods: A prospective observational study. Individuals including 22 normotensive controls, 23 patients with mild hypertension, 20 with severe hypertension, and 17 with hypertension and paroxysmal AF were recruited for paired echocardiography studies at baseline and 6 months after control of hypertension. Results: With increasing severity of hypertension, left ventricular (LV) diastolic function deteriorated with decreasing LV septal E′/A′ and increasing E/E′ ratios. LA expansion index was reduced in parallel. LA expansion index was correlated positively with LV E′/A′ (r = 0.43, p = 0.022) and inversely with LV E/E′ (r = 0.49, p = 0.009). Significant improvement of LV diastolic function and LA expansion index preceded the reduction of LA volume after blood pressure control. In patients with paroxysmal AF, LA volume reduction was more evident in patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Conclusions: With progressive LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertension, there was a corresponding deterioration in LA diastolic function. Effective blood pressure control for 6 months improved LA diastolic function.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Epidemiology and natural history of atrial fibrillation: clinical implications.

          With a substantial impact on morbidity and mortality, the growing "epidemic" of atrial fibrillation (AF) intersects with a number of conditions, including aging, thromboembolism, hemorrhage, hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction. Currently, the epidemiology and natural history of AF govern all aspects of its clinical management. The ongoing global investigative efforts toward understanding AF are also driven by epidemiologic findings. New developments, by affecting the natural history of the disease, could eventually alter the nature of decision making in patients with AF. The crucial issue of rate versus rhythm control awaits completion of the AF Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management trial. The processes of electrical and structural remodeling that perpetuate AF appear to be reversible. In the era of functional genomics, the molecular basis of this ubiquitous arrhythmia is in the process of being defined. Unraveling the molecular genetics of AF might provide new insights into the structural and electrical phenotypes resulting from genetic mutations and, as such, new approaches to treatment of this arrhythmia at the ion channel and cellular levels. Thus, current adverse trends are superimposed on a background of a rapidly developing knowledge base and potentially exciting new therapeutic options. Consequently, an understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of AF is crucial to the future allocation of resources and the utilization of an expanding range of therapies aimed at reducing the impact of this disease on a changing patient population.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as a predictor of the first diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in 840 elderly men and women.

            The objective of this study was to determine whether diastolic dysfunction is associated with increased risk of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in older adults with no history of atrial arrhythmia. Few data exist regarding the relationship between diastolic function and NVAF. The clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of patients age > or =65 years who had an echocardiogram performed between 1990 and 1998 were reviewed. Exclusion criteria were history of atrial arrhythmia, stroke, valvular or congenital heart disease, or pacemaker implantation. Patients were followed up in their medical records to the last clinical visit or death for documentation of first AF. Of 840 patients (39% men; mean [+/- SD] age, 75 +/- 7 years), 80 (9.5%) developed NVAF over a mean (+/- SD) follow-up of 4.1 +/- 2.7 years. Abnormal relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive left ventricular diastolic filling were associated with hazard ratios of 3.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 7.4; p = 0.003), 4.84 (95% CI, 2.05 to 11.4; p < 0.001), and 5.26 (95% CI, 2.3 to 12.03; p < 0.001), respectively, when compared with normal diastolic function. After a number of adjustments, diastolic function profile remained incremental to history of congestive heart failure and previous myocardial infarction for prediction of NVAF. Age-adjusted Kaplan-Meier five-year risks of NVAF were 1%, 12%, 14%, and 21% for normal, abnormal relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive diastolic filling, respectively. CONCLUSIONS; The presence and severity of diastolic dysfunction are independently predictive of first documented NVAF in the elderly.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Diastolic dysfunction and left atrial volume: a population-based study.

              We examined the association between diastolic function and left atrial volume indexed to body surface area (LAVi) in a population-based study. Atrial enlargement has been suggested as a marker of the severity and duration of diastolic dysfunction (DD). However, the association between DD and atrial enlargement and their individual prognostic implications in the population is poorly defined. A cross-sectional sample of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents > or =45 years of age (n=2,042) underwent comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and medical record review. The LAVi increased with worsening DD: 23 +/- 6 ml/m2 (normal), 25 +/- 8 ml/m2 (grade I DD), 31 +/- 8 ml/m2 (grade II DD), 48 +/- 12 ml/m2 (grades III to IV DD). In bivariate analyses, age, left ventricular mass index, and DD grade were positively associated, whereas female gender and ejection fraction (EF) were inversely associated with LAVi (p <0.001 for all). When controlling for age, gender, cardiovascular (CV) disease, EF, and left ventricular mass, grade II DD was associated with a 24%, and grade III to IV DD was associated with a 62% larger LA volume (p <0.0001 for both). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for LAVi to detect grade I, grade II, or grade III to IV DD was 0.57, 0.81, and 0.98, respectively. Both DD and LAVi were predictive of all-cause mortality, but when controlling for DD, LAVi was not an independent predictor of mortality. These data suggest that DD contributes to LA remodeling. Indeed, DD is a stronger predictor of mortality; presumably it better reflects the impact of CV disease within the general population.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                February 2008
                06 August 2007
                : 109
                : 3
                : 180-187
                aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, and cInstitute of Pharmacology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
                106680 Cardiology 2008;109:180–187
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Original Research


                Comment on this article