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      Identification of Novel Mutations of the DAX-1 Gene in Patients with X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita

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          Abstract

          Objective: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a condition clinically featuring adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by mutations of DAX-1. This study was undertaken to characterize the molecular defects of DAX-1 in 3 unrelated Korean patients with AHC. Patients and Methods: Patient 1 is a 6-year-old boy who presented with a salt-losing adrenal crisis in the neonatal period. Patient 2 is a 3-year-old boy who manifested aspiration pneumonia and adrenal insufficiency at the age of 1 month. Patient 3 is a 7-year-old boy who developed an adrenal crisis at the age of 3 days. In each of these patients, DAX-1 was analyzed by direct DNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the entire coding region. Results: Direct sequencing of DAX-1 revealed two novel mutations, 1156_1157delCT in patient 1 and another novel nonsense mutation W105X in patient 2. Patient 3 had complete deletion of DAX-1. In patient 3, serum transaminases and creatine kinase levels were elevated while the glycerol kinase activity of leukocytes was decreased. Markedly elevated glycerol excretion was detected by urine organic acid analysis. Patient 3 was diagnosed as Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome associated with deletions of the entire IL1RAPL, GK genes and the C-terminal region of DMD gene. Conclusions: Two novel mutations of DAX-1 were detected in 2 unrelated patients with AHC, and complete deletion of DAX-1 in a patient with Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome who also presented with glycerol kinase deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and AHC.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Clinical and Functional Effects of Mutations in the DAX-1 Gene in Patients with Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita

           A Reutens (1999)
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            Molecular pathogenesis of lipoid adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal hypoplasia congenita.

            Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is the most severe form of CAH in which the synthesis of all gonadal and adrenal cortical steroids is markedly impaired. Lipoid CAH may be caused by the defect in either the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein or the P450scc. More than 34 different mutations in StAR gene have been identified. Clinically, most of the patients manifest adrenal insufficiency from 1 day to 2 months of age, but some patient show delayed onset of adrenal insufficiency. Affected 46, XY subjects do not show pubertal development, whereas affected 46, XX subjects undergo spontaneous feminization, breast development and cyclical vaginal bleeding at the usual age of puberty. X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenital (AHC) is a rare congenital adrenal disorder characterized by severe adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. More than 80 different several intragenic mutations of DAX-1 have been identified. The failure of pubertal development may be caused by either abnormal hypothalamic or pituitary regulation of gonadotropin secretion. In addition, although the testicular steroidogenesis is largely intact, the functional maturity of Sertoli cells and also spermatogenesis are impaired. The type of mutation does not predict clinical phenotype. Thus, unified mechanism how DAX-1 gene defect gives rise to adrenal insufficiency, hypothalamic/pituitary hypogonadism and impaired spermatogenesis remains established.
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              X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita: A Mutation in DAX1Expands the Phenotypic Spectrum in Males and Females

               S Seminara (1999)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                June 2005
                13 June 2005
                : 63
                : 4
                : 200-205
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, bMedical Genetics Clinic and Laboratory, cGenome Research Center for Birth Defects and Genetic Disorders, and dAsan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea
                Article
                85557 Horm Res 2005;63:200–205
                10.1159/000085557
                15860922
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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