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      Clinical Features of Segmental Infantile Hemangioma: A Prospective Study

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          Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common benign tumor in children. However, few studies have reported the clinical features of segmental IH. We aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of segmental IH and to identify features that may aid clinicians in managing segmental IH.


          In the cross-sectional prospective study approved by the Ethics Committee of the hospital, children diagnosed with IH were recruited, and information including patient demographics, IH morphology and anatomical location, complications and treatments were recorded and analyzed.


          In total, 153 patients with segmental IH and 1375 patients with nonsegmental IH were enrolled in this study. The average age on the day of the first visit in patients with segmental IH was 3.63±3.23 months. In 69 patients (45.10%), segmental IH was diagnosed at birth. Most segmental IHs (49.67%) occurred in the limbs, while only 22.04% of nonsegmental IHs occurred in the extremities ( P<0.001). Thirteen patients (8.50%) with segmental IH had ulceration. Compared with patients with nonsegmental IHs, patients with segmental IHs were more likely to be treated with oral drugs ( P<0.001).


          Segmental IHs mainly occur in the extremities and are frequently diagnosed at birth. Segmental IHs are usually accompanied by ulceration, which are more commonly seen in the neck and perineal/perianal/genital areas than nonsegmental IHs. Oral propranolol is prescribed more often in patients with segmental IH than in those with nonsegmental IH.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Growth characteristics of infantile hemangiomas: implications for management.

          Infantile hemangiomas often are inapparent at birth and have a period of rapid growth during early infancy followed by gradual involution. More precise information on growth could help predict short-term outcomes and make decisions about when referral or intervention, if needed, should be initiated. The objective of this study was to describe growth characteristics of infantile hemangioma and compare growth with infantile hemangioma referral patterns. A prospective cohort study involving 7 tertiary care pediatric dermatology practices was conducted. Growth data were available for a subset of 526 infantile hemangiomas in 433 patients from a cohort study of 1096 children. Inclusion criteria were age younger than 18 months at time of enrollment and presence of at least 1 infantile hemangioma. Growth stage and rate were compared with clinical characteristics and timing of referrals. Eighty percent of hemangioma size was reached during the early proliferative stage at a mean age of 3 months. Differences in growth between hemangioma subtypes included that deep hemangiomas tend to grow later and longer than superficial hemangiomas and that segmental hemangiomas tended to exhibit more continued growth after 3 months of age. The mean age of first visit was 5 months. Factors that predicted need for follow-up included ongoing proliferation, larger size, deep component, and segmental and indeterminate morphologic subtypes. Most infantile hemangioma growth occurs before 5 months, yet 5 months was also the mean age at first visit to a specialist. Recognition of growth characteristics and factors that predict the need for follow-up could help aid in clinical decision-making. The first few weeks to months of life are a critical time in hemangioma growth. Infants with hemangiomas need close observation during this period, and those who need specialty care should be referred and seen as early as possible within this critical growth period.
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            Prospective study of infantile hemangiomas: demographic, prenatal, and perinatal characteristics.

             K Horii,  ,  Anne W Lucky (2007)
            To characterize demographic, prenatal, and perinatal features of patients with infantile hemangiomas and to determine the importance of these factors in predicting rates of complication and treatment. We conducted a prospective study at 7 U.S. pediatric dermatology clinics. A consecutive sample of 1058 children, aged 12 years and younger, with infantile hemangiomas was enrolled between September 2002 and October 2003. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect demographic, prenatal, perinatal, and hemangioma-specific data. National Vital Statistic System Data (NVSS) was used to compare demographic variables and relevant rates of prenatal events. In comparison with the 2002 United States National Vital Statistics System birth data, we found that infants with hemangiomas were more likely to be female, white non-Hispanic, premature (P < .0001) and the product of a multiple gestation (10.6% versus 3.1%; P < .001). Maternal age was significantly higher (P < .0001), and placenta previa (3.1%) and pre-eclampsia (11.8%) were more common. Infants with hemangiomas are more likely to be female, white non-Hispanic, premature, and products of multiple gestations. Prenatal associations include older maternal age, placenta previa, and pre-eclampsia. No demographic, prenatal, and perinatal factors predicted higher rates of complications or need for treatment.
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              Hemangiomas of infancy.

              Hemangiomas of infancy are unique, benign, pediatric tumors of endothelial cells characterized by an initial phase of rapid proliferation, followed by slow involution, often leading to complete regression. Although most of these tumors are small and innocuous, some may be may be life- or function-threatening, or have associated structural congenital anomalies. Uncertainties regarding their diagnosis or management often prompt referral to a dermatologist. The pathogenesis of hemangiomas of infancy is not well understood, but recent findings suggest a unique vascular phenotype with dysregulated vascular homeostasis. This article reviews new information regarding the pathogenesis of these tumors and highlights the more worrisome presentations, including syndromic hemangiomas, that are likely to be problematic. In addition, management strategies and treatment options are discussed. (J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:477-93.) At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to describe the clinical features of hemangiomas of infancy and potential complications as well as to understand the strengths and limitations of various treatment options.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                27 January 2021
                : 17
                : 119-125
                [1 ]Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University , Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University , Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yi Ji Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University , #37# Guo-Xue-Xiang, Chengdu610041, People’s Republic of ChinaFax +86 28 85423453 Email jijiyuanyuan@163.com
                © 2021 Qiu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 5, References: 22, Pages: 7
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                Funded by: Key Project in the Science & Technology Program of Sichuan Province;
                Funded by: Science Foundation for The Excellent Youth Scholars of Sichuan University;
                Funded by: Excellence-Clinical Research Incubation Project of West China Hospital of Sichuan University;
                Funded by: YJ and SYC;
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81401606, 81400862), the Key Project in the Science & Technology Program of Sichuan Province (2019YFS0322), the Science Foundation for The Excellent Youth Scholars of Sichuan University (2015SU04A15), and the 1·3·5 Project for Disciplines of Excellence-Clinical Research Incubation Project of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (2019HXFH056, 2020HXFH048). YJ and SYC as the funders participated in providing the original idea of the work, drafting and revising the manuscript.
                Original Research


                ulceration, segmental infantile hemangioma, clinical features, complications, treatment


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