+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Attenuation of Interstitial Inflammation and Fibrosis by Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Chronic Cyclosporine Nephropathy

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Background: Evidence suggests that recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) protects neurons and cardiomyocytes from acute insults. We investigated the protective effect of rHuEPO on cyclosporine (CsA)-induced renal injury. Methods: CsA (15 mg/kg/day) was given to rats for 1 or 4 weeks, and rHuEPO was concurrently administered at a dose of 100 units/kg (thrice weekly). Effects of rHuEPO on CsA-induced renal injury were evaluated with tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) score, macrophage infiltration, expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, and apoptotic cell death. Results: Administration of rHuEPO decreased TIF score and the number of macrophages, which increased significantly in CsA-treated rat kidneys. At the molecular level, rHuEPO treatment decreased proinflammatory mediators (osteopontin and C-reactive protein) and profibrotic mediators (transforming growth factor-β1 and transforming growth factor-β1-inducible gene-h3). Increased apoptotic cell death in CsA-treated rat kidneys was significantly decreased with rHuEPO cotreatment, and apoptosis-related genes were regulated in favor of cell survival (increased Bcl-2 and suppressed caspase-3). Conclusion: rHuEPO has a renoprotective effect against chronic CsA-induced renal injury.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 38

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Erythropoietin-mediated neuroprotection involves cross-talk between Jak2 and NF-kappaB signalling cascades.

          Erythropoietin, a kidney cytokine regulating haematopoiesis (the production of blood cells), is also produced in the brain after oxidative or nitrosative stress. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) upregulates EPO following hypoxic stimuli. Here we show that preconditioning with EPO protects neurons in models of ischaemic and degenerative damage due to excitotoxins and consequent generation of free radicals, including nitric oxide (NO). Activation of neuronal EPO receptors (EPORs) prevents apoptosis induced by NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) or NO by triggering cross-talk between the signalling pathways of Janus kinase-2 (Jak2) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We show that EPOR-mediated activation of Jak2 leads to phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB), subsequent nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, and NF-kappaB-dependent transcription of neuroprotective genes. Transfection of cerebrocortical neurons with a dominant interfering form of Jak2 or an IkappaBalpha super-repressor blocks EPO-mediated prevention of neuronal apoptosis. Thus neuronal EPORs activate a neuroprotective pathway that is distinct from previously well characterized Jak and NF-kappaB functions. Moreover, this EPO effect may underlie neuroprotection mediated by hypoxic-ischaemic preconditioning.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Erythropoietin Selectively Attenuates Cytokine Production and Inflammation in Cerebral Ischemia by Targeting Neuronal Apoptosis

            Ischemic brain injury resulting from stroke arises from primary neuronal losses and by inflammatory responses. Previous studies suggest that erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates both processes. Although EPO is clearly antiapoptotic for neurons after experimental stroke, it is unknown whether EPO also directly modulates EPO receptor (EPO-R)–expressing glia, microglia, and other inflammatory cells. In these experiments, we show that recombinant human EPO (rhEPO; 5,000 U/kg body weight, i.p.) markedly reduces astrocyte activation and the recruitment of leukocytes and microglia into an infarction produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. In addition, ischemia-induced production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentration is reduced by >50% after rhEPO administration. Similar results were also observed in mixed neuronal-glial cocultures exposed to the neuronal-selective toxin trimethyl tin. In contrast, rhEPO did not inhibit cytokine production by astrocyte cultures exposed to neuronal homogenates or modulate the response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, rat glial cells, or the brain to lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest that rhEPO attenuates ischemia-induced inflammation by reducing neuronal death rather than by direct effects upon EPO-R–expressing inflammatory cells.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Recombinant human erythropoietin protects the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injury and promotes beneficial remodeling.

              Erythropoietin (EPO), originally identified for its critical hormonal role in promoting erythrocyte survival and differentiation, is a member of the large and diverse cytokine superfamily. Recent studies have identified multiple paracrineautocrine functions of EPO that coordinate local responses to injury by maintaining vascular autoregulation and attenuating both primary (apoptotic) and secondary (inflammatory) causes of cell death. Experimental evidence also supports a role for EPO in repair and regeneration after brain and spinal cord injury, including the recruitment of stem cells into the region of damage. Tissue expression of the EPO receptor is widespread, especially during development, and includes the heart. However, it is currently unknown as to whether EPO plays a physiological function in adult myocardial tissue. We have assessed the potential protective role of EPO in vitro with adult rat cardiomyocytes, and in vivo in a rat model of myocardial infarction with reperfusion. The results show that EPO markedly prevents the apoptosis of cultured adult rat myocardiocytes subjected to 28 h of hypoxia (approximately 3% normal oxygen). Additional studies employing a rat model of coronary ischemia-reperfusion showed that the administration of recombinant human EPO (5,000 units/kg of body weight; i.p. daily for 7 days) reduces cardiomyocyte loss by approximately 50%, an extent sufficient to normalize hemodynamic function within 1 week after reperfusion. These observations not only suggest a potential therapeutic role for recombinant human EPO in the treatment of myocardial ischemia and infarction by preventing apoptosis and attenuating postinfarct deterioration in hemodynamic function, but also predict that EPO is likely a tissue-protective cytokine in other organs as well.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2005
                22 March 2005
                : 25
                : 1
                : 64-76
                Departments of aInternal Medicine, bSurgery, and cAnatomy, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; dNephrology and Dialysis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital, YanBian University Medical College, YanJi, Jilin, China
                84275 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:64–76
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 12, Tables: 2, References: 55, Pages: 13
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/84275
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


                Comment on this article