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      Auxin Treatment Enhances Anthocyanin Production in the Non-Climacteric Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)

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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key signaling molecule promoting ripening of non-climacteric fruits such as sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). To shed light on the role of other hormones on fruit development, ripening and anthocyanin production, the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was applied to sweet cherry trees during the straw-color stage of fruit development. NAA-treated fruits exhibited higher concentrations of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE), which are a precursor of ethylene and a primary storage form of ABA, respectively. Consistent with these observations, transcript levels of genes encoding ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, both involved in ethylene biosynthesis, were increased after 6 days of NAA treatment, and both ABA concentration and expression of the regulator gene of ABA biosynthesis (NCED1 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase) were highest during early fruit ripening. In addition, transcript levels of key anthocyanin regulatory, biosynthetic and transport genes were significantly upregulated upon fruit exposure to NAA. This was accompanied by an increased anthocyanin concentration and fruit weight whilst fruit firmness and cracking index decreased. Altogether our data suggest that NAA treatment alters ethylene production, which in turn induces ripening in sweet cherry and enhanced anthocyanin production, possibly through ABA metabolism. The results from our study highlight the potential to use a single NAA treatment for manipulation of cherry ripening.

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          Flavonoid biosynthesis. A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology.

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            The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis: structural and genetic diversity.

            Flavonoids are representative plant secondary products. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, at least 54 flavonoid molecules (35 flavonols, 11 anthocyanins and 8 proanthocyanidins) are found. Scaffold structures of flavonoids in Arabidopsis are relatively simple. These include kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin for flavonols, cyanidin for anthocyanins and epicatechin for proanthocyanidins. The chemical diversity of flavonoids increases enormously by tailoring reactions which modify these scaffolds, including glycosylation, methylation and acylation. Genes responsible for the formation of flavonoid aglycone structures and their subsequent modification reactions have been extensively characterized by functional genomic efforts - mostly the integration of transcriptomics and metabolic profiling followed by reverse genetic experimentation. This review describes the state-of-art of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis regarding both structural and genetic diversity, focusing on the genes encoding enzymes for the biosynthetic reactions and vacuole translocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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              Abscisic acid dynamics, signaling, and functions in plants

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                October 2021
                October 05 2021
                : 22
                : 19
                : 10760
                Article
                10.3390/ijms221910760
                6e5a7c27-a5d9-46e7-8a20-7ba28c16771b
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Self URI (article page): https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/19/10760

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