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      A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice.

      Cell Metabolism

      Elsevier BV

      aging, low-carbohydrate diet, longevity, lifespan, ketones, ketone bodies, ketogenic diet, healthspan, beta-hydroxybutyrate, memory

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          Abstract

          Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention. The ketogenic diet (KD) significantly increased median lifespan and survival compared to controls. In aged mice, only those consuming a KD displayed preservation of physiological function. The KD increased protein acetylation levels and regulated mTORC1 signaling in a tissue-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that a KD extends longevity and healthspan in mice.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Metformin, independent of AMPK, induces mTOR inhibition and cell-cycle arrest through REDD1.

          Metformin is a widely prescribed antidiabetic drug associated with a reduced risk of cancer. Many studies show that metformin inhibits cancer cell viability through the inhibition of mTOR. We recently showed that antiproliferative action of metformin in prostate cancer cell lines is not mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We identified REDD1 (also known as DDIT4 and RTP801), a negative regulator of mTOR, as a new molecular target of metformin. We show that metformin increases REDD1 expression in a p53-dependent manner. REDD1 invalidation, using siRNA or REDD1(-/-) cells, abrogates metformin inhibition of mTOR. Importantly, inhibition of REDD1 reverses metformin-induced cell-cycle arrest and significantly protects from the deleterious effects of metformin on cell transformation. Finally, we show the contribution of p53 in mediating metformin action in prostate cancer cells. These results highlight the p53/REDD1 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment. ©2011 AACR.
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            Object recognition test in mice.

            The object recognition test is now among the most commonly used behavioral tests for mice. A mouse is presented with two similar objects during the first session, and then one of the two objects is replaced by a new object during a second session. The amount of time taken to explore the new object provides an index of recognition memory. As more groups have used the protocol, the variability of the procedures used in the object recognition test has increased steadily. This protocol provides a necessary standardization of the procedure. This protocol reduces inter-individual variability with the use of a selection criterion based on a minimal time of exploration for both objects during each session. In this protocol, we describe the three most commonly used variants, containing long (3 d), short (1 d) or no habituation phases. Thus, with a short intersession interval (e.g., 6 h), this procedure can be performed in 4, 2 or 1 d, respectively, according to the duration of the habituation phase. This protocol should allow for the comparison of results from different studies, while permitting adaption of the protocol to the constraints of the experimenter.
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              Differential effects of fat and sucrose on the development of obesity and diabetes in C57BL/6J and A/J mice.

              We have previously demonstrated that the C57BL/6J (B/6J) mouse will develop severe obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia if weaned onto a high-fat, high-sucrose (HH) diet. In the present study, we compared the effects of fat and sucrose separately and in combination on diabetes- and obesity-prone B/6J and diabetes- and obesity-resistant A/J mice. After 4 months, the feed efficiency ([FE] weight gained divided by calories consumed) did not differ across diets in A/J mice, but B/6J mice showed a significantly increased FE for fat. That is, B/6J mice gained more weight on high-fat diets without consuming more calories than A/J mice. The increase in FE was related to adipocyte hyperplasia in B/6J mice on high-fat diets. Fat-induced obesity in B/6J mice was unrelated to adrenal cortical activity. In the absence of fat, sucrose produced a decreased in FE in both strains. Animals fed a low-fat, high-sucrose (LH) diet were actually leaner than animals fed a high-complex-carbohydrate diet. Fat was also found to be the critical stimulus for hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in B/6J mice. In the absence of fat, sucrose had no effect on plasma glucose or insulin. These data clearly show that across these two strains of mice, genetic differences in the metabolic response to fat are more important in the development of obesity and diabetes than the increased caloric content of a high-fat diet.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                5609489
                10.1016/j.cmet.2017.08.005
                28877457

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