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      Ocular Neovascularization

      , ,

      Survey of Ophthalmology

      Elsevier BV

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          Vasculogenesis.

           W Risau,  I Flamme (1994)
          Induction by fibroblast growth factors of mesoderm during gastrulation leads to blood-forming tissue, including angioblasts and hemopoietic cells, that together constitute the blood islands of the yolk sac. The differentiation of angioblasts from mesoderm and the formation of primitive blood vessels from angioblasts at or near the site of their origin are the two distinct steps during the onset of vascularization that are defined as vasculogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase flk-1 represent a paracrine signaling system crucial for the differentiation of endothelial cells and the development of the vascular system. Specified cell adhesion molecules such as VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 (CD-31), and transcription factors such as ets-1, as well as mechanical forces and vascular regression and remodeling are involved in the subsequent events of endothelial cell differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis.
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            The prevalence of age-related maculopathy in the Rotterdam Study.

            To determine the prevalence of age-related maculopathy in an elderly population in The Netherlands. Fundus photographs of 6251 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a single-center prospective follow-up study in persons 55 to 98 years of age, were reviewed for the presence of drusen, pigmentary abnormalities, and atrophic or neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The prevalence of at least one drusen of 63 microns or larger increased from 40.8% in persons 55 to 64 years of age to 52.6% in those 85 years of age or older. Similarly, the prevalence of the following abnormalities increased significantly in these age categories: drusen of 125 microns or larger from 4.8% to 17.5%, retinal pigment epithelial hypopigmentations from 3.5% to 9.0%, and increased retinal pigment from 3.7% to 15.3%. Atrophic or neovascular age-related macular degeneration was present in 1.7% of the total population. Atrophic age-related macular degeneration increased from 0.1% in persons 55 to 64 years of age to 3.7% in those 85 years of age or older. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration increased from 0.1% to 7.4% in these age groups. No sex differences were observed for these lesions. The prevalence of atrophic or neovascular age-related macular degeneration is 1.7%. In those 55 years of age or older, the prevalence increases strongly with age and it is similar in men and women. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration was twice as common as atrophic age-related macular degeneration. These findings suggest that age-related maculopathy may be less common in this European population than in similar populations in the United States.
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              Intravitreous injections of vascular endothelial growth factor produce retinal ischemia and microangiopathy in an adult primate.

              The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the primate retina and its vasculature. Ten eyes of five animals were studied. Physiologically relevant amounts of the 165 amino acid isoform of human recombinant VEGF were injected into the vitreous of six healthy cynomolgus monkey eyes. Inactivated human recombinant VEGF or vehicle was injected into four contralateral control subject eyes. Eyes were assessed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, fundus color photography, fundus fluorescein angiography, light microscopy, and immunostaining with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and factor VIII antigen. All six bioactive VEGF-injected eyes developed dilated, tortuous retinal vessels that leaked fluorescein. Eyes receiving multiple injections of VEGF developed progressively dilated and tortuous vessels, venous beading, edema, microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages and capillary closure with ischemia. The severity of the retinopathy correlated with the number of VEGF injections. None of the four control eyes exhibited any abnormal retinal vascular changes. The endothelial cells of retinal blood vessels were proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive only in the bioactive VEGF-injected eyes. Vascular endothelial growth factor is sufficient to produce many of the vascular abnormalities common to diabetic retinopathy and other ischemic retinopathies, such as hemorrhage, edema, venous beading, capillary occlusion with ischemia, microaneurysm formation, and intraretinal vascular proliferation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Survey of Ophthalmology
                Survey of Ophthalmology
                Elsevier BV
                00396257
                November 1998
                November 1998
                : 43
                : 3
                : 245-269
                Article
                10.1016/S0039-6257(98)00035-6
                © 1998

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