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      The Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Moriomorphini) of Haleakala-, Maui: Keystone of a hyperdiverse Hawaiian radiation

      research-article
      1
      ZooKeys
      Pensoft Publishers
      Allopatric speciation, biodiversity, biogeography, genitalic evolution, revisionary systematics

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax major sp. n., Mecyclothorax xestos sp. n., Mecyclothorax orbiculus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax contractus sp. n.; 9, Mecyclothorax scaritoides group with Mecyclothorax scarites sp. n., Mecyclothorax timberlakei sp. n., Mecyclothorax crassuloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax crassulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax gracilicollis sp. n., and Mecyclothorax dispar sp. n.; 10, Mecyclothorax haleakalae group with Mecyclothorax reiteratus sp. n., Mecyclothorax splendidus sp. n., Mecyclothorax bacrionis sp. n., and Mecyclothorax simpulum sp. n.; 11, Mecyclothorax vitreus group with Mecyclothorax kipwilli sp. n., Mecyclothorax kipahulu sp. n., Mecyclothorax kaumakani sp. n., and Mecyclothorax kuiki sp. n.; 12, Mecyclothorax montivagus group with Mecyclothorax rex sp. n.; 13, Mecyclothorax ducalis group with Mecyclothorax aquilus sp. n., Mecyclothorax invisitatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax longidux sp. n., and Mecyclothorax brevidux sp. n.; and 14, Mecyclothorax palustris group with Mecyclothorax hephaestoides sp. n., Mecyclothorax oculellus sp. n., Mecyclothorax bicoloris sp. n., Mecyclothorax bicoloratus sp. n., Mecyclothorax bilobatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax palustroides sp. n., Mecyclothorax filipoides sp. n., Mecyclothorax nanunctus sp. n., Mecyclothorax tauberorum sp. n., and Mecyclothorax pau sp. n. Mecyclothorax integer Sharp, stat. n. is recognized as a species distinct from Mecyclothorax interruptus Sharp. Because type series for species described by Blackburn, Karsch, and Sharp are most often divided among geographically remote collections, lectotypes are designated to stabilize the nomenclature. The radiation includes numerous cryptic sibling species best diagnosed using male genitalia, and photographs are used to represent the male genitalic variability observed among numerous dissected individuals. The large number of new species is based on substantial new collections made from all quarters of the mountain. The dense geographic sampling allows fine-scale discrimination of species boundaries, elucidating the geographic disjunctions that are associated with speciation within this hyperdiverse radiation. Disjunctions between closely related species precinctive to various areas of the mountain are not congruent across the different lineages of the radiation, indicating differential responses by the various lineages to past geological and geographical events. Of the 62 1’ latitude × 1’ longitude grid cells on Haleakalā that are occupied by Mecyclothorax beetles, 22 house 10 or more species, and 9 house 20 or more species. This substantial level of sympatry, associated with occupation of diverse microhabitats by these beetles, provides ample information useful for monitoring biodiversity of the natural areas of Haleakalā.

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          Arthropods on islands: colonization, speciation, and conservation.

          Islands have traditionally been considered to be any relatively small body of land completely surrounded by water. However, their primary biological characteristic, an extended period of isolation from a source of colonists, is common also to many situations on continents. Accordingly, theories and predictions developed for true islands have been applied to a huge array of systems, from rock pools, to single tree species in forests, to oceanic islands. Here, we examine the literature on islands in the broadest sense (i.e., whether surrounded by water or any other uninhabitable matrix) as it pertains to terrestrial arthropods. We categorize islands according to the features they share. The primary distinction between different island systems is "darwinian" islands (formed de novo) and "fragment" islands. In the former, the islands have never been in contact with the source of colonists and have abundant "empty" ecological niche space. On these islands, species numbers will initially increase through immigration, the rate depending on the degree of isolation. If isolation persists, over time species formation will result in "neo-endemics." When isolation is extreme, the ecological space will gradually be filled through speciation (rather than immigration) and adaptive radiation of neo-endemics. Fragment islands are fundamentally different. In these islands, the ecological space will initially be filled as a consequence of connection to the source of colonists prior to insularization. Species numbers will decrease following fragmentation through the process of relaxation. If these islands become more isolated, species will eventually arise through relictualization with the formation of "paleo-endemics." Given sufficient time, this process can result in generic level endemism on ancient fragment islands, a phenomenon well illustrated in Madagascar and New Zealand. Recognizing the distinction between the different kinds of islands is fundamental for understanding emerging patterns on each, in particular speciation, biodiversity (e.g., neo-endemics versus paleo-endemics), and conservation (e.g., naiveté in interactions with alien species).
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            Systema entomologiae : sistens insectorvm classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibvs, observationibvs / Io. Christ. Fabricii.

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              EVOLUTION OF THE HIND WING IN COLEOPTERA

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2015
                11 December 2015
                : 544
                : 1-407
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cornell University Insect Collection, 2144 John H. and Anna B. Comstock Hall, 129 Garden Ave., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-2601, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: James K. Liebherr ( jkl5@ 123456cornell.edu )

                Academic editor: Terry L. Erwin

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.544.6074
                4714384
                6e6cc783-6f41-4ee6-b782-81bde77f4752
                James K. Liebherr

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 5 June 2015
                : 28 October 2015
                Categories
                Monograph

                Animal science & Zoology
                allopatric speciation,biodiversity,biogeography,genitalic evolution,revisionary systematics,animalia,coleoptera,carabidae

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