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Granular response to impact: Topology of the force networks

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Physical Review E

American Physical Society (APS)

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      Contact force measurements and stress-induced anisotropy in granular materials.

      Interparticle forces in granular media form an inhomogeneous distribution of filamentary force chains. Understanding such forces and their spatial correlations, specifically in response to forces at the system boundaries, represents a fundamental goal of granular mechanics. The problem is of relevance to civil engineering, geophysics and physics, being important for the understanding of jamming, shear-induced yielding and mechanical response. Here we report measurements of the normal and tangential grain-scale forces inside a two-dimensional system of photoelastic disks that are subject to pure shear and isotropic compression. Various statistical measures show the underlying differences between these two stress states. These differences appear in the distributions of normal forces (which are more rounded for compression than shear), although not in the distributions of tangential forces (which are exponential in both cases). Sheared systems show anisotropy in the distributions of both the contact network and the contact forces. Anisotropy also occurs in the spatial correlations of forces, which provide a quantitative replacement for the idea of force chains. Sheared systems have long-range correlations in the direction of force chains, whereas isotropically compressed systems have short-range correlations regardless of the direction.
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        Experimental hypervelocity impact into quartz sand: Distribution and shock metamorphism of ejecta

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          Is Open Access

          The Jamming Transition in Granular Systems

          Recent simulations have predicted that near jamming for collections of spherical particles, there will be a discontinuous increase in the mean contact number, Z, at a critical volume fraction, phi_c. Above phi_c, Z and the pressure, P are predicted to increase as power laws in phi-phi_c. In experiments using photoelastic disks we corroborate a rapid increase in Z at phi_c and power-law behavior above phi_c for Z and P. Specifically we find power-law increase as a function of phi-phi_c for Z-Z_c with an exponent beta around 0.5, and for P with an exponent psi around 1.1. These exponents are in good agreement with simulations. We also find reasonable agreement with a recent mean-field theory for frictionless particles.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            PLEEE8
            Physical Review E
            Phys. Rev. E
            American Physical Society (APS)
            2470-0045
            2470-0053
            January 2018
            January 12 2018
            : 97
            : 1
            10.1103/PhysRevE.97.012906
            © 2018

            https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-license

            https://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-accepted-manuscript-license

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