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      High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d6754144e212">Defects in the outer blood-retinal barrier have significant impact on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. However, the detailed mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. This is, in part, attributed to the lack of suitable animal and cell culture models, including those of mouse origin. We recently reported a method for the culture of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from wild-type and transgenic mice. The RPE cells are responsible for maintaining the integrity of the outer blood-retinal barrier whose dysfunction during diabetes has a significant impact on vision. Here we determined the impact of high glucose on the function of RPE cells. We showed that high glucose conditions resulted in enhanced migration and increased the level of oxidative stress in RPE cells, but minimally impacted their rate of proliferation and apoptosis. High glucose also minimally affected the cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions of RPE cells. However, the expression of integrins and extracellular matrix proteins including pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were altered under high glucose conditions. Incubation of RPE cells with the antioxidant <i>N</i>-acetylcysteine under high glucose conditions restored normal migration and PEDF expression. These cells also exhibited increased nuclear localization of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 and ZO-1, reduced levels of β-catenin and phagocytic activity, and minimal effect on production of vascular endothelial growth factor, inflammatory cytokines, and Akt, MAPK, and Src signaling pathways. Thus high glucose conditions promote RPE cell migration through increased oxidative stress and expression of PEDF without a significant effect on the rate of proliferation and apoptosis. </p>

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          Most cited references 63

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          Diabetic retinopathy.

           Daniel Frank (2004)
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            The retinal pigment epithelium in health and disease.

            Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) constitute a simple layer of cuboidal cells that are strategically situated behind the photoreceptor (PR) cells. The inconspicuousness of this monolayer contrasts sharply with its importance [1]. The relationship between the RPE and PR cells is crucial to sight; this is evident from basic and clinical studies demonstrating that primary dysfunctioning of the RPE can result in visual cell death and blindness. RPE cells carry out many functions including the conversion and storage of retinoid, the phagocytosis of shed PR outer segment membrane, the absorption of scattered light, ion and fluid transport and RPE-PR apposition. The magnitude of the demands imposed on this single layer of cells in order to execute these tasks, will become apparent to the reader of this review as will the number of clinical disorders that take origin from these cells.
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              Phagocytosis of retinal rod and cone photoreceptors.

              Photoreceptor cells maintain a roughly constant length by continuously generating new outer segments from their base while simultaneously releasing mature outer segments engulfed by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Thus postmitotic RPE cells phagocytose an immense amount of material over a lifetime, disposing of photoreceptor cell waste while retaining useful content. This review focuses on current knowledge of outer segment phagocytosis, discussing the steps involved along with their critical participants as well as how various perturbations in outer segment (OS) disposal can lead to retinopathies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology
                American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology
                American Physiological Society
                0363-6143
                1522-1563
                September 2016
                September 2016
                : 311
                : 3
                : C418-C436
                Article
                10.1152/ajpcell.00001.2016
                5129761
                27440660
                © 2016

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