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Three-dimensional imaging of normal skin and nonmelanoma skin cancer with cellular resolution using Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy

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      Abstract.

      We investigate morphological differences in three-dimensional (3-D) images with cellular resolution between nonmelanoma skin cancer and normal skin using Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy. As a result, we show for the first time cellular optical coherence images of 3-D features differentiating cancerous skin from normal skin. In addition, in vivo volumetric images of normal skin from different anatomic locations are shown and compared.

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      Most cited references 47

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      Optical coherence tomography.

      A technique called optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. OCT uses low-coherence interferometry to produce a two-dimensional image of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures in a way that is analogous to ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging. OCT has longitudinal and lateral spatial resolutions of a few micrometers and can detect reflected signals as small as approximately 10(-10) of the incident optical power. Tomographic imaging is demonstrated in vitro in the peripapillary area of the retina and in the coronary artery, two clinically relevant examples that are representative of transparent and turbid media, respectively.
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        Incidence estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States, 2006.

        To estimate the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in the US population in 2006 and secondarily to indicate trends in numbers of procedures for skin cancer treatment. A descriptive analysis of population-based claims and US Census Bureau data combined with a population-based cross-sectional survey using multiple US government data sets, including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Fee-for-Service Physicians Claims databases, to calculate totals of skin cancer procedures performed for Medicare beneficiaries in 1992 and from 1996 to 2006 and related parameters. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Service database was used to estimate NMSC-related office visits. We combined these to estimate totals of new skin cancer diagnoses and affected individuals in the overall US population. The total number of procedures for skin cancer in the Medicare fee-for-service population increased by 76.9% from 1 158 298 in 1992 to 2 048 517 in 2006. The age-adjusted procedure rate per year per 100 000 beneficiaries increased from 3514 in 1992 to 6075 in 2006. From 2002 to 2006 (the years for which the databases allow procedure linkage to patient demographics and diagnoses), the number of procedures for NMSC in the Medicare population increased by 16.0%. In this period, the number of procedures per affected patient increased by 1.5%, and the number of persons with at least 1 procedure increased by 14.3%. We estimate the total number of NMSCs in the US population in 2006 at 3 507 693 and the total number of persons in the United States treated for NMSC at 2 152 500. The number of skin cancers in Medicare beneficiaries increased dramatically over the years 1992 to 2006, due mainly to an increase in the number of affected individuals. Using nationally representative databases, we provide evidence of much higher overall totals of skin cancer diagnoses and patients in the US population than previous estimates. These data give the most complete evaluation to date of the underrecognized epidemic of skin cancer in the United States.
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          In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology.

          In 1995, we reported the construction of a video-rate scanning laser confocal microscope for imaging human skin in vivo. Since then, we have improved the resolution, contrast, depth of imaging, and field of view. Confocal images of human skin are shown with experimentally measured lateral resolution 0.5-1.0 microm and axial resolution (section thickness) 3-5 microm at near-infrared wavelengths of 830 nm and 1064 nm; this resolution compares well to that of histology which is based on typically 5 microm thin sections. Imaging is possible to maximum depth of 350 microm over field of view of 160-800 microm. A mechanical skin-contact device was developed to laterally stabilize the imaging site to within +/- 25 microm in the presence of subject motion. Based on these results, we built a small, portable, and robust confocal microscope that is capable of imaging normal and abnormal skin morphology and dynamic processes in vivo, in both laboratory and clinical settings. We report advances in confocal microscope instrumentation and methods, an optimum range of parameters, improved images of normal human skin, and comparison of confocal images with histology.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [a ]University of Rochester , The Institute of Optics, 275 Hutchinson Road, Rochester New York 14627
            [b ]University of Rochester Medical Center , Department of Dermatology, 400 Red Creek Drive, Suite 200, Rochester, New York 14623
            Author notes
            Address all correspondence to: Jannick P. Rolland, University of Rochester, The Institute of Optics, 275 Hutchinson Road, Rochester, New York 14627. Tel: 585-276-4562; Fax: 585-244-4936; E-mail: rolland@ 123456optics.rochester.edu
            Journal
            J Biomed Opt
            J Biomed Opt
            JBOPFO
            JBO
            Journal of Biomedical Optics
            Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
            1083-3668
            1560-2281
            3 December 2012
            December 2012
            : 17
            : 12
            23208217
            3512165
            10.1117/1.JBO.17.12.126006
            JBO-12331 12331
            © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

            0091-3286/2012/ $25.00 © 2012 SPIE

            Counts
            Figures: 6, Tables: 0
            Funding
            Funded by: NYSTAR Foundation
            Award ID: C050070
            Categories
            Research Papers: Imaging
            Custom metadata
            Lee et al.: Three-dimensional imaging of normal skin and nonmelanoma skin cancer with cellular…

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