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      The incidence and risk factors of peripherally inserted central catheter-related infection among cancer patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          As the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) increased in chemotherapy, the identification of complications and risk factors became essential to prevent patient harm. But little is known about PICC-related infection and risk factors among patients with cancer. Our study was to identify the prevalence, patterns, and risk factors of catheter-related infections associated with PICCs.

          Methods

          A 3-year prospective cohort study was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital. All patients with cancer who met inclusion criteria were enrolled. The patients were followed up until catheter removal. Tip cultures were routinely performed at the time of catheter removal. The general information was recorded at the time of PICC insertion, weekly care, and removal. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied for identification of risk factors.

          Results

          In total, 912 cancer patients with 912 PICCs of 96,307 catheter days were enrolled. Ninety-four developed PICC-related infection; 46 were exit-site infection, 43 were catheter bacterial colonization, and five were PICC-related bloodstream infection. The median time from catheter insertion to infection was 98.26 days. Multivariate analysis showed StatLock fixing (odds ratio [OR] =0.555, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.326–0.945) and tip position located in the lower one-third of the superior vena cava (OR =0.340, 95% CI: 0.202–0.571) were associated with lower PICC infection rate. Catheter care delay (OR =2.612, 95% CI: 1.373–4.969) and indwelling mostly in summer (OR =4.784, 95% CI: 2.681–8.538) were associated with higher infection incidence.

          Conclusion

          StatLock fixing and tip position located in the lower one-third of the superior vena cava were protective factors against PICC-related infection, while catheter care delay and indwelling mostly in summer were risk factors. Policy and measures targeting these factors may be necessary to reduce the risk of infection.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections.

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            The risk of bloodstream infection associated with peripherally inserted central catheters compared with central venous catheters in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are associated with central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). The magnitude of this risk relative to central venous catheters (CVCs) is unknown. To compare risk of CLABSI between PICCs and CVCs. MEDLINE, CinAHL, Scopus, EmBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. Full-text studies comparing the risk of CLABSI between PICCs and CVCs were included. Studies involving adults 18 years of age or older who underwent insertion of a PICC or a CVC and reported CLABSI were included in our analysis. Studies were evaluated using the Downs and Black scale for risk of bias. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate summary estimates of CLABSI risk in patients with PICCs versus CVCs. Of 1,185 studies identified, 23 studies involving 57,250 patients met eligibility criteria. Twenty of 23 eligible studies reported the total number of CLABSI episodes in patients with PICCs and CVCs. Pooled meta-analyses of these studies revealed that PICCs were associated with a lower risk of CLABSI than were CVCs (relative risk [RR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.94). Statistical heterogeneity prompted subgroup analysis, which demonstrated that CLABSI reduction was greatest in outpatients (RR [95% CI], 0.22 [0.18-0.27]) compared with hospitalized patients who received PICCs (RR [95% CI], 0.73 [0.54-0.98]). Thirteen of the included 23 studies reported CLABSI per catheter-day. Within these studies, PICC-related CLABSI occurred as frequently as CLABSI from CVCs (incidence rate ratio [95% CI], 0.91 [0.46-1.79]). Only 1 randomized trial met inclusion criteria. CLABSI definition and infection prevention strategies were variably reported. Few studies reported infections by catheter-days. Although PICCs are associated with a lower risk of CLABSI than CVCs in outpatients, hospitalized patients may be just as likely to experience CLABSI with PICCs as with CVCs. Consideration of risks and benefits before PICC use in inpatient settings is warranted.
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              Complication rates among cancer patients with peripherally inserted central catheters.

              Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently used to deliver outpatient courses of intravenous therapy. However, the rates and risks of complication for this device have not been well-studied. Our objective was to determine the incidence and risk factors of PICC-related complications with a 1-year prospective observational study. All PICCs inserted in adult and pediatric patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) were followed prospectively. The device insertion team, inpatient nurses, and various home-care companies and outside institutions collected longitudinal data. Three hundred fifty-one PICCs were inserted during the study period and followed for a total of 10,562 catheter-days (median placement, 15 days; range, 1 to 487 days). Two hundred five PICCs (58%) were managed by home-care companies and outside institutions, and 146 PICCs (42%) were managed exclusively at MSKCC. For these 205 PICCs, 131 nurses from 74 home-care companies and institutions were contacted for follow-up clinical information. In all, 115 (32.8%) of 351 PICCs were removed as a result of a complication, for a rate of 10.9 per 1,000 catheter-days. Patients with hematologic malignancy or bone marrow transplant were more likely to develop a complication, whereas those with metastatic disease were less likely. Complications occur frequently among cancer patients with PICCs, and long-term follow-up is onerous. Despite a high complication rate, the ease of insertion and removal argues for continued PICC use in the cancer population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                22 May 2015
                : 11
                : 863-871
                Affiliations
                [1 ]President’s Office, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Oncology Department, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Intensive Care Unit, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Nursing Department, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yufang Gao, President’s Office, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No 16 Jiangsu Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266001, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 186 6360 8162, Email gaoyufang0612@ 123456163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                tcrm-11-863
                10.2147/TCRM.S83776
                4447175
                26045668
                © 2015 Gao et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                picc, complication, clinical study, catheter-related bloodstream infection

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