Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), the third endogenous gaseous signaling molecule alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide, is synthesized by multiple enzymes in cardiovascular system. Similar to other gaseous mediators, H 2S has demonstrated a variety of biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, pro-angiogenic, vasodilating capacities and endothelial NO synthase modulating activity, and regulates a wide range of pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms by which H 2S mediates cardiovascular homeostasis are not fully understood. This review focuses on the recent progress on functional and mechanistic aspects of H 2S in the inflammatory and immunoregulatory processes of cardiovascular disorders, importantly myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Moreover, we highlight the challenges for developing H 2S-based therapy to modulate the pathological processes in cardiovascular diseases. A better understanding of the immunomodulatory and biochemical functions of H 2S might provide new therapeutic strategies for these cardiovascular diseases.