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      Social Force Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

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          Abstract

          It is suggested that the motion of pedestrians can be described as if they would be subject to `social forces'. These `forces' are not directly exerted by the pedestrians' personal environment, but they are a measure for the internal motivations of the individuals to perform certain actions (movements). The corresponding force concept is discussed in more detail and can be also applied to the description of other behaviors. In the presented model of pedestrian behavior several force terms are essential: First, a term describing the acceleration towards the desired velocity of motion. Second, terms reflecting that a pedestrian keeps a certain distance to other pedestrians and borders. Third, a term modeling attractive effects. The resulting equations of motion are nonlinearly coupled Langevin equations. Computer simulations of crowds of interacting pedestrians show that the social force model is capable of describing the self-organization of several observed collective effects of pedestrian behavior very realistically.

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          Most cited references 4

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          A cellular automaton model for freeway traffic

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            Self Organization and a Dynamical Transition in Traffic Flow Models

            A simple model that describes traffic flow in two dimensions is studied. A sharp {\it jamming transition } is found that separates between the low density dynamical phase in which all cars move at maximal speed and the high density jammed phase in which they are all stuck. Self organization effects in both phases are studied and discussed.
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              Physics and social science — The approach of synergetics

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                20 May 1998
                Article
                10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282
                cond-mat/9805244
                6eab2a75-4fb1-4039-a50a-fa660123a29b
                Custom metadata
                Physical Review E 51, 4282-4286 (1995)
                For related work see http://www.theo2.physik.uni-stuttgart.de/helbing.html
                cond-mat.stat-mech nlin.PS patt-sol

                Condensed matter, Nonlinear & Complex systems

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