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      Miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus retrograde intrarenal surgery in the treatment of renal stones with a diameter <15 mm: A 3-year open-label prospective study

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          The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-perc) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in management of renal stones with a diameter <15 mm.

          Materials and Methods:

          This was an open-label prospective study that included a total of 80 cases underwent mini-perc ( n = 40) and RIRS ( n = 40) between July 2014 and August 2017. The primary outcome objective was stone-free rate, retreatment rate, complications, hospital stay, operative time, and reduction in hemoglobin level. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 Software.


          Overall, 80 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 40.12 and 38.20 years, and the mean stone size was 1.15 and 1.30 cm in mini-perc and RIRS group, respectively. Majority of the study participants were males. Overall, mini-perc and RIRS had stone clearance rates of 100% and 95.4%, respectively. Two patients required retreatment in RIRS group. The duration of hospital stay and the rate of complication was similar in both the groups. Operative duration was more in RIRS group. Decrease in hemoglobin level was more in mini-perc group.


          Results demonstrated that both modalities were associated with high stone clearance rates with minimal complications. RIRS was associated with less reduction in hemoglobin and could be used as standard treatment modality for small renal calculi.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Complications in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

          This review focuses on a step-by-step approach to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and its complications and management. Based on institutional and personal experience with >1000 patients treated by PNL, we reviewed the literature (Pubmed search) focusing on technique, type, and incidence of complications of the procedure. Complications during or after PNL may be present with an overall complication rate of up to 83%, including extravasation (7.2%), transfusion (11.2-17.5%), and fever (21.0-32.1%), whereas major complications, such as septicaemia (0.3-4.7%) and colonic (0.2-0.8%) or pleural injury (0.0-3.1%) are rare. Comorbidity (i.e., renal insufficiency, diabetes, gross obesity, pulmonary disease) increases the risk of complications. Most complications (i.e., bleeding, extravasation, fever) can be managed conservatively or minimally invasively (i.e., pleural drain, superselective renal embolisation) if recognised early. The most important consideration for achieving consistently successful outcomes in PNL with minimal major complications is the correct selection of patients. A well-standardised technique and postoperative follow-up are mandatory for early detection of complications.
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            Lower pole I: a prospective randomized trial of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy for lower pole nephrolithiasis-initial results.

            The efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous stone removal for the treatment of symptomatic lower pole renal calculi was determined. A prospective randomized, multicenter clinical trial was performed comparing shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous stone removal for symptomatic lower pole only renal calculi 30 mm. or less. Of 128 patients enrolled in the study 60 with a mean stone size of 14.43 mm. were randomized to percutaneous stone removal (58 treated, 2 awaiting treatment) and 68 with a mean stone size of 14.03 mm. were randomized to shock wave lithotripsy (64 treated, 4 awaiting treatment). Followup at 3 months was available for 88% of treated patients. The 3-month postoperative stone-free rates overall were 95% for percutaneous removal versus 37% lithotripsy (p <0.001). Shock wave lithotripsy results varied inversely with stone burden while percutaneous stone-free rates were independent of stone burden. Stone clearance from the lower pole following shock wave lithotripsy was particularly problematic for calculi greater than 10 mm. in diameter with only 7 of 33 (21%) patients becoming stone-free. Re-treatment was necessary in 10 (16%) lithotripsy and 5 (9%) percutaneous cases. There were 9 treatment failures in the lithotripsy group and none in the percutaneous group. Ancillary treatment was necessary in 13% of lithotripsy and 2% percutaneous cases. Morbidity was low overall and did not differ significantly between the groups (percutaneous stone removal 22%, shock wave lithotripsy 11%, p =0.087). In the shock wave lithotripsy group there was no difference in lower pole anatomical measurements between kidneys in which complete stone clearance did or did not occur. Stone clearance from the lower pole following shock wave lithotripsy is poor, especially for stones greater than 10 mm. in diameter. Calculi greater than 10 mm. in diameter are better managed initially with percutaneous removal due to its high degree of efficacy and acceptably low morbidity.
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              The "mini-perc" technique: a less invasive alternative to percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

              The disadvantages of standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) as compared with ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy include increased blood loss, greater pain, and longer hospital stay. A 13-Fr "mini-perc" technique using a ureteroscopy sheath for PCNL was developed in an attempt to address these drawbacks. Nine "mini-percs" have been performed in patients aged 40-73 years with stone burdens of < or = 2 cm2. On average, patients had 1.4 stones with a cross-sectional area of 1.5 cm2. The mean total procedure time, estimated blood loss, and hematocrit decrease were 176 min, 83 ml, and 6.6%, respectively. On average, patients used 14 mg of parenteral morphine and stayed 1.7 days in the hospital. There was no procedure-related complication or transfusion. Eight of nine kidneys (89%) were stone-free on early follow-up at a mean of 3.8 weeks. As compared with standard PCNL, the "mini-perc" technique has similar early success rates in selected patients and may offer advantages with respect to hemorrhage, postoperative pain, and shortened hospital stays.

                Author and article information

                Urol Ann
                Urol Ann
                Urology Annals
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Apr-Jun 2018
                : 10
                : 2
                : 165-169
                Department of Urology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Abhirudra Mulay, Department of Urology, Dr. D.Y Patil Medical College, Sant. Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: dr_abhirudra@ 123456yahoo.co.in
                Copyright: © 2018 Urology Annals

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                Original Article


                mini-perc, retrograde intrarenal surgery, small renal calculi


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