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      Insecticide and Repellent Mixture Pour-On Protects Cattle against Animal Trypanosomosis

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          Abstract

          Background

          African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. The latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          Two prospective surveys were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and persistence of a pour-on formulation composed of cypermetrhin, chlorpyrifos, piperonyl butoxid and citronella (Vectoclor, CEVA Santé Animal). In experimental conditions, tsetse flies were exposed to treated and control cattle. Flies knockdown and engorgement rates were determined and the product persistence was assessed as the time for these parameters to drop below 50% (T50). T50 was 37 days (95%CI: [33–41] days) and 46 days (95%CI: [39–56] days) for the knockdown and engorgement rates respectively. In field conditions, two cattle herds were monitored following a case-control experimental design, in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. One herd was treated once with Vectoclor pour-on (treated group) and the second used as a control group (not treated). Ticks infestation rate, trypanosomosis prevalence and packed-cell volume were measured over the two months following treatment. The treatment was highly effective against ticks with a complete elimination three days after application in the treated group. Trypanosomosis prevalence was also significantly reduced during the study (by 4, P<0.001) and PCV of the treated group increased significantly in the same time ( P<0.001), contrary to the control group.

          Conclusions/Significance

          The protection of this new pour-on against tsetse bites and trypanosomosis is demonstrated here for the first time. Moreover, this insecticide and repellent mixture offer a longer persistence of the efficacy against both tsetse and ticks than similar products currently on the market. It offers a great new opportunity for an integrated AAT control strategy including the treatment of residual cases with trypanocides. It might also allow controlling the spread of resistance against these trypanocides.

          Author Summary

          In sub-Saharan Africa, tsetse and tick borne disease are the main constraints to livestock production. Providing farmers effective products to control animal pests is a challenging task in the context of increasing resistance to insecticide in many vectors and reduction of available insecticide molecules. Moreover, the spread of invasive species of high economic importance such as the tick Rhipicephalus microplus stress the development of new tools. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of a new pour-on formulation against tsetse, trypanosomosis and ticks in experimental and field trials. This product based on a mix of two insecticides, a repellent and a synergist prove to be very effective with an immediate effect on ticks and tsetse and low treatment frequency to maintain a low ticks infestation and trypanosomosis prevalence. This new insecticide formulation represents an important innovation in the field of vector control, offering a partial individual protection in addition to a collective control method against trypanosomosis vectors and ticks.

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          Most cited references26

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          Acaricide resistance in cattle ticks and approaches to its management: the state of play.

          Cattle ticks are an important constraint on livestock production, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas. Use of synthetic acaricides is the primary method of tick control; therefore, it would be imperative to develop strategies to preserve the efficacy of existing acaricides. This paper summarizes the status of acaricide resistance in cattle ticks from different parts of the world and reviews modes of action of currently used acaricides, mechanism of resistance development, contributory factors for the development and spread of resistance, management of resistant strains and strategies to prolong the effect of the available acaricides. Use of vaccines, synthetic and botanical acaricides and educating farmers about recommended tick control practices are discussed, along with the integration of currently available options for the management of drug resistance and, ultimately, the control of cattle ticks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Sustainable tick and tickborne disease control in livestock improvement in developing countries.

            Tick and tickborne disease (TTBD) control is a major component of animal health programmes protecting livestock, thereby enhancing global food security. The present methods for TTBD control are reviewed and an integrated use of the tools is recommended with a broader view of how to link TTBD control to the control of other parasitic diseases. The work of FAO in this field is presented and it is advocated that, although there are still areas that need further investigation, a stage has been reached where robust integrated TTBD control schemes, based on ecological and epidemiological knowledge of ticks and their associated diseases, can be promoted and implemented. Major challenges are the implementation of these policies in the field through the continuation of the present on-going programme in Africa and support to Latin America and Asia. The importance of involving all parties, governments, international and private organisations and the agrochemical industry in developing sustainable, cost-efficient control programmes is stressed and a global strategy is proposed. The main thrust should now be to convince policy makers on the adoption of the strategies and veterinarians and farmers on their implementation.
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              Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

              Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place. Copyright © 2012 International Atomic Energy Agency. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                plos
                plosntds
                PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1935-2727
                1935-2735
                27 December 2016
                December 2016
                : 10
                : 12
                : e0005248
                Affiliations
                [1 ]CIRAD, UMR INTERTRYP, F-34398, Montpellier, France
                [2 ]Centre International de Recherche-développement sur l’Élevage en Zone Subhumide, BP 454, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
                [3 ]University of Ngaoundéré, School of Veterinary Medicine and Sciences, Department of Parasitology and Parasitological Diseases, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
                [4 ]Université Dan Dicko Dankoulodo de Maradi, Département des Sciences et Techniques de l’Elevage (FASE/DSTE), BP 465 Maradi, Niger
                [5 ]CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France
                Makerere University, UGANDA
                Author notes

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceived and designed the experiments: YA JB HA MA.

                • Performed the experiments: JB HA BC YA.

                • Analyzed the data: GG JB.

                • Wrote the paper: GG JB AZ MA HA.

                Article
                PNTD-D-16-01137
                10.1371/journal.pntd.0005248
                5222519
                28027324
                6ecbc319-38d6-4d4f-9448-2c46fbedd692
                © 2016 Gimonneau et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 15 July 2016
                : 12 December 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 5, Pages: 16
                Funding
                This work was funded by CEVA Santé Animale (Libourne, France). The work of GG and JB was conducted within the research project “Integrated Vector Management: innovating to improve control and reduce environmental impacts” of Institut Carnot Santé Animale excellence network. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Veterinary Science
                Veterinary Medicine
                Livestock Care
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Bovines
                Cattle
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Livestock
                Cattle
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Mammals
                Ruminants
                Cattle
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Disease Vectors
                Ticks
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Arachnida
                Ixodes
                Ticks
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agrochemicals
                Insecticides
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Glossina
                Tsetse Fly
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Epidemiology
                Disease Vectors
                Insect Vectors
                Tsetse Fly
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Infectious Diseases
                Infectious Disease Control
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Veterinary Science
                Veterinary Diseases
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Africa
                Cameroon
                Custom metadata
                vor-update-to-uncorrected-proof
                2017-01-09
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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