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      Regulation of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Release by Neuropeptide Y at the Median Eminence during the Preovulatory Period in Ewes

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          Abstract

          The median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus is known to be an important brain site where hypophysiotropic release might be regulated by excitatory and inhibitory signals impinging on their neuronal terminals. Since a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY) on preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) release has been suggested, we hypothesized that NPY might act at the ME to control preovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and thus the onset of the preovulatory surge of LH. To examine this possibility, we used the ewe as an animal model to determine: (a) immunocytochemical distribution of GnRH and NPY in the ewe ME; (b) changes in in vivo release of NPY and GnRH using ME push-pull cannula (PPC) perfusate samples, as well as in plasma LH, during the luteal, follicular and preovulatory phases of a synchronized estrous cycle, and (c) effects of ME perfusion of NPY or a Y1-NPY antagonist, or an NPY antiserum on in vivo release of ME-GnRH and plasma LH during a synchronized follicular phase. Immunolocalization reveals a dense plexus of beaded GnRH-containing neurites in the arcuate nucleus and in its vicinity, the pituitary stalk and the palisade. In contrast, a dense plexus of NPY-containing neurites occurs in the internal layer, with occasional fibers found in the intermediate and lateral external zone of the ME. In the area between the lateral internal and lateral external layers, both NPY and GnRH-containing processes were found, thus providing opportunities for synaptic and/or paracrine interactions between NPY- and GnRH-containing neurons. Hormonal analysis indicated that a synchronized preovulatory surge of LH is elicited within a 2-hour window by the sequential implantation and removal of silastic-encased estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4) implants. In this paradigm, there was a parallel increase in ME release of both NPY and GnRH preceding the synchronized LH surge. The onset of this synchronized LH surge was advanced by ME perfusion of exogenous NPY and was both delayed and blunted by ME perfusion with the NPY antagonist (both were perfused through the PPC probe for 2 h, starting 2–3 h before the expected onset of the LH surge). In addition, NPY perfusion in the ME increases, while perfusion of the Y1-NPY antagonist or of the NPY antiserum decreases ME-PPC GnRH content and plasma levels of LH in early follicular ewes. Finally, perfusion of NPY antiserum during an ongoing LH surge disrupted LH release. These results suggest that interactions between NPY and GnRH neurons are important in controlling the timing, magnitude and maintenance of the preovulatory LH surge.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Neuropeptide Y Family of Hormones: Receptor Subtypes and Antagonists

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            Evidence that neuropeptide Y secretion in the median eminence increases prior to the luteinizing hormone surge in ovariectomized steroid-primed rats: Estimation by push-pull perfusion

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              Morphological evidence for neuronal regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-containing neurons by neuropeptide Y in the rat septo-preoptic area.

              Using a preembedding double immunolabeling technique, synaptic contacts were found between luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-containing neurons and neuropeptide Y-containing axonal fibers in the rat septo-preoptic area. In demonstrating LHRH neurons, we used mainly an antiserum generated against rat gonadotrophic hormone-releasing hormone-associated peptide. Although many diaminobenzidine-labeled neuropeptide Y-containing fibers were seen around silver-gold-labeled LHRH cell bodies, synapses with synaptic membrane specialization were scarce. The fiber terminals usually contained many small clear vesicles and some large cored vesicles. The synapses were characterized with the presynaptic accumulation of the small clear vesicles and symmetric thickenings of the synaptic membranes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2003
                April 2003
                21 May 2003
                : 77
                : 4
                : 246-257
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Animal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; bDepartment of Neurology, University of Miami, Miami, Fla., and cDepartment of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga., USA
                Article
                70280 Neuroendocrinology 2003;77:246–257
                10.1159/000070280
                12766325
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 1, References: 55, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Sex Steroids and Reproductive Neuroendocrinology

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