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      Targeting IL-5 in COPD

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          Abstract

          Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continue to experience exacerbations despite receiving standard-of-care treatments. Novel approaches to COPD treatment focus on understanding and targeting molecular mechanisms of airway inflammation, airway obstruction, remodeling and lung destruction. Several identified phenotypes and endotypes of COPD will pave the future path for a more personalized approach to therapy. Although well known to be associated with neutrophilic inflammation, COPD may also be driven by eosinophilic inflammation both at stable states and during exacerbation. Targeting eosinophilic inflammation has been successful in managing severe eosinophilic asthma and may hold promise in certain phenotypes of COPD. The most promising biologic treatments at an advanced stage of development are agents blocking interleukin (IL)-5 or its receptor. This review examines our current understanding of the eosinophilic inflammation in COPD and the rationale for IL-5 targeting agents.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Efficacy and safety of benralizumab for patients with severe asthma uncontrolled with high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists (SIROCCO): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

          Eosinophilia is associated with worsening asthma severity and decreased lung function, with increased exacerbation frequency. We assessed the safety and efficacy of benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5 receptor α that depletes eosinophils by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma with eosinophilia.
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            Benralizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 receptor α monoclonal antibody, as add-on treatment for patients with severe, uncontrolled, eosinophilic asthma (CALIMA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

            Benralizumab is a humanised, afucosylated, anti-interleukin-5 receptor α monoclonal antibody that induces direct, rapid, and nearly complete depletion of eosinophils. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of benralizumab as add-on therapy for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma and elevated blood eosinophil counts.
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              Multifaceted mechanisms in COPD: inflammation, immunity, and tissue repair and destruction.

              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality that is characterised by inexorable deterioration of small airways obstruction with emphysema associated with cellular inflammation and structural remodelling. Other features include apoptosis as well as proliferation of cells, and both tissue repair and lack of tissue repair. Metalloprotease release, together with that of apoptotic factors, may underlie the emphysema, and, conversely, fibrosis of the small airways may be accounted for by the effects of growth factor activation. In advanced disease, influential factors include the development of autoimmunity, with activation of dendritic cells and T-helper cells of both type 1 and 2, and the senescence response. An inability of macrophages to ingest apoptosed cells and bacteria may exacerbate inflammatory responses. Systemic inflammation with concomitant cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome may reflect the effect of cigarette smoke on nonpulmonary cells. Corticosteroid resistance may be secondary to oxidative stress mechanisms, such as inactivation of histone deacetylases. The mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be heterogeneous, according to severity, and clinical phenotypes need to be correlated with cellular and pathological processes. Treatments may be targeted to patients with specific mechanisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                16 May 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 1045-1051
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, TX, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nicola A HananiaSection of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine , 1504 Taub Loop, Houston, TX77030, USATel +1 713 873 3454Email Hanania@ 123456bcm.edu
                Article
                155306
                10.2147/COPD.S155306
                6529620
                © 2019 Narendra and Hanania.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 35, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Review

                Respiratory medicine

                benralizumab, mepolizumab, il-5, eosinophils, airway inflammation, copd

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