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      Sistema NADPH oxidasa: nuevos retos y perspectivas Translated title: NADPH oxidase system: new challenges and perspectives

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          Abstract

          El sistema NADPH oxidasa es un complejo multiproteico encargado de producir especies reactivas del oxígeno (ROS, por reactive oxygen species) en diferentes células y tejidos. Es de gran importancia en las células fagocíticas (principalmente neutrófilos y macrófagos) porque participa en la destrucción de microorganismos patógenos, mediante la fagocitosis y la formación de las trampas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NET, por neutrophils extracelular traps), así como en la activación de procesos inflamatorios. Las alteraciones en la producción de ROS por parte de las células fagocíticas a causa de defectos genéticos en los componentes del sistema generan la inmunodeficiencia primaria denominada enfermedad granulomatosa crónica (EGC). Este es un artículo de revisión sobre los componentes del sistema NADPH oxidasa, su distribución celular, mecanismo de activación y acción, así como de las funciones que desempeña en otros tejidos. Además, se revisan los defectos moleculares que llevan a la EGC y el tratamiento de esta, incluyendo la terapia con IFNγ, y finalmente las perspectivas para el estudio del sistema.

          Translated abstract

          The NADPH oxidase system is a multiprotein complex that acts as the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different cells and tissues. In phagocytic cells (mainly macrophages and neutrophils) it is essential for eliminating pathogenic microorganisms, by phagocytosis and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). It also contributes to inflammatory processes. Genetic defects in the components of the system cause alterations in the production of ROS by phagocytic cells, leading to the primary immunodeficiency known as chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). This is a review article on the components of the NADPH oxidase system, its cellular distribution, activation, mechanisms of action, and roles in other tissues. The different molecular defects that lead to EGC are also reviewed, as well as its treatment, including therapy with IFNγ, and the prospects for the study of the system.

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          Most cited references63

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          Neutrophil extracellular traps kill bacteria.

          Neutrophils engulf and kill bacteria when their antimicrobial granules fuse with the phagosome. Here, we describe that, upon activation, neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin that together form extracellular fibers that bind Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria. NETs are abundant in vivo in experimental dysentery and spontaneous human appendicitis, two examples of acute inflammation. NETs appear to be a form of innate response that binds microorganisms, prevents them from spreading, and ensures a high local concentration of antimicrobial agents to degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria.
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            Modern management of chronic granulomatous disease.

            Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytic cells resulting in failure to kill a characteristic spectrum of bacteria and fungi and in defective degradation of inflammatory mediators with concomitant granuloma formation. Current prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, itraconazole and in selected cases additional interferon gamma is efficient, but imperfect. A significant recent progress towards new antibiotic (e.g. linezolid) and antifungal (e.g. voriconazole and posaconazole) therapy will allow survival of most patients into adulthood. Adolescent and adult CGD is increasingly characterized by inflammatory complications, such as granulomatous lung and inflammatory bowel disease, requiring immunosupressive therapy. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a human leucocyte antigen identical donor is currently the only proven curative treatment for CGD and can be offered to the selected patients. Gene-replacement therapy for patients lacking a suitable stem cell donor is still experimental and faces major obstacles and risks. However, it may offer some transitory benefits and has helped in a few cases to overcome life-threatening infections.
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              The function of the NADPH oxidase of phagocytes and its relationship to other NOXs in plants, invertebrates, and mammals

              The NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (NOX) of ‘professional’ phagocytic cells transfers electrons across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole, forming superoxide in the lumen. It is generally accepted that this system promotes microbial killing through the generation of reactive oxygen species and through the activity of myeloperoxidase. An alternative scenario exists in which the passage of electrons across the membrane alters the pH and generates a charge that drives ions into, and out of, the vacuole. It is proposed that the primary function of the oxidase is to produce these pH changes and ion fluxes, and the issues surrounding these processes are considered. The neutrophil oxidase is the prototype of a whole family of NOXs that exist throughout biology, from plants to man, which might function, at least in part, in a similar fashion. Some examples of how these other NOXs might influence ion fluxes are examined.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                iat
                Iatreia
                Iatreia
                Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín )
                0121-0793
                December 2010
                : 23
                : 4
                : 362-372
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Antioquia Colombia
                Article
                S0121-07932010000400006
                6ed2d642-7ac9-4006-96e7-2d8a40783448

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0121-0793&lng=en
                Categories
                MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL

                Internal medicine
                Chronic granulomatous disease,NOX proteins,NADPH oxidase system,Reactive oxygen species,Enfermedad granulomatosa crónica,Especies reactivas del oxígeno,NADPH oxidasa,Proteínas NOX

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