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      Renoprotection by Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator in Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Recent studies have demonstrated that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) induce a tissue-protective effect in the kidney. In this study, we examined whether continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA), a long-acting ESA, could prevent kidney injury, especially podocyte damage, in a rat model of nephrotic syndrome induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN). Methods: Rats were injected with CERA (30 µg/kg) or vehicle 4 h before the injection of PAN (50 mg/kg). Renal function, kidney injury, and podocyte damage were assessed at 7 days. Results: The levels of proteinuria, BUN, and plasma creatinine significantly increased in rats with PAN-induced nephrosis. Treatment with CERA significantly prevented these deteriorations induced by PAN. Glomerular lesions, especially vacuolation of podocytes, and the increase of desmin expression in PAN-treated rats were significantly ameliorated by treatment with CERA. Treatment with CERA also significantly prevented the decrease in the protein productions of nephrin and podocin in the kidneys of PAN-treated rats. We found persistent activation of the Akt signaling pathway in the kidneys of CERA-treated rats. Conclusion: CERA could ameliorate renal dysfunction in PAN-induced nephrosis, which might be due to the amelioration of podocyte injury. CERA inhibited the depletion of nephrin and podocin, key components of the glomerular filtration barrier, and alleviated proteinuria. Activation of the Akt signaling pathway might be involved in the renoprotective effect of CERA

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          Most cited references 21

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          Podocyte depletion and glomerulosclerosis have a direct relationship in the PAN-treated rat.

          Podocytes are highly differentiated glomerular epithelial cells with limited potential to divide. They are responsible for maintaining and supporting the glomerular basement membrane so as to facilitate efficient filtration. The hypothesis tested was whether the development of glomerulosclerosis in the puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-treated rat could be attributed to podocyte depletion. PAN was injected in Sprague-Dawley rats once, twice, or three times at 30-day intervals. Podocytes were counted in glomeruli using immunoperoxidase histochemistry and antibodies to both GLEPP1 (PTPRO) and WT-1. Podocytes were assayed in urine using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR). Glomerular areas were measured by computerized morphometry. In a preliminary experiment, a single injection of PAN caused a reduction in the glomerular podocyte count by 25%. Additional independent confirmation that podocytes were lost from glomeruli after PAN injection was obtained identifying detached podocytes in Bowman's space, measurement of nephrin and GLEPP1 mRNAs in urine, ultrastructural analysis of glomeruli, and identification of TUNEL-positive apoptotic podocytes in glomeruli. In a second experiment, sequential podocyte depletion by 15, 31, and 53% was achieved by the administration of one, two, or three injections of PAN at 30-day intervals. The region of the glomerulus devoid of podocytes developed glomerulosclerosis, and this area progressively increased as podocytes were progressively depleted. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) value for the relationship between percent podocyte depletion and glomerulosclerotic area was 0.99. The Y intercept of this plot showed that glomerulosclerosis was initiated when only 10 to 20% of podocytes were lost. This report supports the growing body of data linking glomerulosclerosis directly to a reduction in relative podocyte number [increased glomerular area per podocyte (GAPP)]. It raises important questions related to the mechanisms of podocyte loss, strategies for prevention of podocyte depletion, and the prevention of progression of glomerular diseases.
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            Nephrin and CD2AP associate with phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase and stimulate AKT-dependent signaling.

            Mutations of NPHS1 or NPHS2, the genes encoding nephrin and podocin, as well as the targeted disruption of CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), lead to heavy proteinuria, suggesting that all three proteins are essential for the integrity of glomerular podocytes, the visceral glomerular epithelial cells of the kidney. It has been speculated that these proteins participate in common signaling pathways; however, it has remained unclear which signaling proteins are actually recruited by the slit diaphragm protein complex in vivo. We demonstrate that both nephrin and CD2AP interact with the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) in vivo, recruit PI3K to the plasma membrane, and, together with podocin, stimulate PI3K-dependent AKT signaling in podocytes. Using two-dimensional gel analysis in combination with a phosphoserine-specific antiserum, we demonstrate that the nephrin-induced AKT mediates phosphorylation of several target proteins in podocytes. One such target is Bad; its phosphorylation and inactivation by 14-3-3 protects podocytes against detachment-induced cell death, suggesting that the nephrin-CD2AP-mediated AKT activity can regulate complex biological programs. Our findings reveal a novel role for the slit diaphragm proteins nephrin, CD2AP, and podocin and demonstrate that these three proteins, in addition to their structural functions, initiate PI3K/AKT-dependent signal transduction in glomerular podocytes.
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              Nephrin mediates actin reorganization via phosphoinositide 3-kinase in podocytes.

              Nephrin is a slit diaphragm protein critical for structural and functional integrity of visceral glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes) and is known to be tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases. We studied the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), activated via the phosphorylation of nephrin, in actin cytoskeletal reorganization of cultured rat podocytes. Phosphorylation of rat nephrin by the Fyn kinase markedly increased its interaction with a regulatory subunit of PI3K. Stable transfection of rat nephrin in the podocytes with podocin led to nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation, PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt, increased Rac1 activity, and an altered actin cytoskeleton with decreased stress fibers and increased lamellipodia. These changes were reversed with an inhibitor of PI3K and not seen when the nephrin-mutant Y1152F replaced wild-type nephrin. Rac1 and Akt1 contributed to lamellipodia formation and decreased stress fibers, respectively. Finally, in the rat model of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation, nephrin-PI3K association, and glomerular Akt phosphorylation were all decreased. Our results suggest that PI3K is involved in nephrin-mediated actin reorganization in podocytes. Disturbed nephrin-PI3K interactions may contribute to abnormal podocyte morphology and proteinuria.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2012
                November 2012
                30 October 2012
                : 36
                : 5
                : 419-426
                Affiliations
                Product Research Department, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Gotemba, Japan
                Author notes
                *Koichi Endo, Product Research Department, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 1-135 Komakado, Gotemba 412-8513 (Japan), E-Mail endokui@chugai-pharm.co.jp
                Article
                343493 Am J Nephrol 2012;36:419–426
                10.1159/000343493
                23128049
                © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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